This syllabus will let you know about the topics to be covered for Engineering, Management and Finance related jobs at NTPC. If you go through previous papers for NTPC you will find that the questions broadly revolve around the prescribed syllabus. Its better that you stick to these when you start preparing and then focus on other material for extra details.

We wish you luck for your exams.

### Discipline: ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING

**Electric Circuits and Fields:**

Network graph, KCL, KVL, node and mesh analysis, transient response of dc and ac networks; sinusoidal steady-state analysis, resonance, basic filter concepts; ideal current and voltage sources, Thevenin's, Norton's and Superposition and Maximum Power Transfer theorems, two-port networks, three phase circuits; Gauss Theorem, electric field and potential due to point, line, plane and spherical charge distributions; Ampere's and Biot-Savart's laws; inductance; dielectrics; capacitance.

**Signals and Systems:**

Representation of continuous and discrete-time signals; shifting and scaling operations; linear, time-invariant and causal systems; Fourier series representation of continuous periodic signals; sampling theorem; Fourier, Laplace and Z transforms.

**Electrical Machines:**

Single phase transformer - equivalent circuit, phasor diagram, tests, regulation and efficiency; three phase transformers - connections, parallel operation; auto-transformer; energy conversion principles; DC machines - types, windings, generator characteristics, armature reaction and commutation, starting and speed control of motors; three phase induction motors - principles, types, performance characteristics, starting and speed control; single phase induction motors; synchronous machines - performance, regulation and parallel operation of generators, motor starting, characteristics and applications; servo and stepper motors.

**Power Systems:**

Basic power generation concepts; transmission line models and performance; cable performance, insulation; corona and radio interference; distribution systems; per-unit quantities; bus impedance and admittance matrices; load flow; voltage control; power factor correction; economic operation; symmetrical components; fault analysis; principles of over-current, differential and distance protection; solid state relays and digital protection; circuit breakers; system stability concepts, swing curves and equal area criterion; HVDC transmission and FACTS concepts. Numeric Relays.

**Control Systems:**

Principles of feedback; transfer function; block diagrams; steady-state errors; Routh and Niquist techniques; Bode plots; root loci; lag, lead and lead-lag compensation; state space model; state transition matrix, controllability and observability.

**Electrical and Electronic Measurements:**

Bridges and potentiometers; PMMC, moving iron, dynamometer and induction type instruments; measurement of voltage, current, power, energy and power factor; instrument transformers; digital voltmeters and multimeters; phase, time and frequency measurement; Q-meters; oscilloscopes; error analysis.

**Analog and Digital Electronics:**

Characteristics of diodes, BJT, FET; amplifiers - biasing, equivalent circuit and frequency response; oscillators and feedback amplifiers; operational amplifiers - characteristics and applications; simple active filters; VCOs and timers; combinational and sequential logic circuits; multiplexer; Schmitt trigger; multi-vibrators; sample and hold circuits; A/D and D/A converters; 8-bit / 16-bit microprocessor basics, architecture, programming and interfacing.

**Power Electronics and Drives:**

Semiconductor power diodes, transistors, thyristors, triacs, GTOs, MOSFETs and IGBTs - static characteristics and principles of operation; triggering circuits; phase control rectifiers; bridge converters - fully controlled and half controlled; principles of choppers and inverters; basis concepts of adjustable speed dc and ac drives. Variable speed control of AC machines.

### Discipline: Mechanical Engineering

**Engineering Mechanics:**

Free body diagrams and equilibrium; trusses and frames; virtual work; kinematics and dynamics of particles and of rigid bodies in plane motion, including impulse and momentum (linear and angular) and energy formulations; impact.

**Engineering Materials:**

Structure and properties of engineering materials and their applications, heat treatment, stress-strain diagrams for engineering materials.

**Strength of Materials:**

Stress and strain, stress-strain relationship and elastic constants, Mohr's circle for plane stress and plane strain, thin cylinders, thick-walled vessels; shear force and bending moment diagrams; bending and shear stresses; deflection of beams; torsion of circular members; columns and struts; strain energy and impact loading; thermal stresses; Rotating Rims & Discs; Bending of Curved Bars.

**Theory of Machines:**

Displacement, velocity and acceleration analysis of plane mechanisms, kinematic synthesis of mechanisms; dynamic analysis of slider-crank mechanism; gear trains; flywheels; static and dynamic force analysis; balancing of rotating components; governors.

**Thermodynamics:**

Thermodynamic system and processes; Zeroth, First and Second laws of thermodynamics;; Carnot cycle. irreversibility and availability; behaviour of pure substances, ideal and real gases; calculation of work and heat in ideal and real processes; Rankine and Brayton cycles with modifications, analysis of thermodynamic cycles related to energy conversion; vapour refrigeration cycle, heat pumps, gas refrigeration, reverse Brayton cycle; moist air: psychrometric chart, basic psychrometric processes.

**Energy Conversion:**

Fuels and combustion; high pressure steam boilers; flow through nozzles; Gas turbines with intercooling, reheat and regenerators, Steam turbines, velocity diagram, power output and efficiency, maximum blade efficiency of single stage impulse turbine, blade friction, compounding of impulse turbine; reaction turbine, degree of reaction, velocity diagram, power output, efficiency; losses in steam turbines, stage efficiency, overall efficiency and reheat factor; governing of steam turbines; steam condensers, condenser vacuum, sources of air leakage & its disadvantages.

**Heat-Transfer:**

Modes of heat transfer; one dimensional heat conduction, resistance concept, electrical analogy, unsteady heat conduction, fins; dimensionless parameters in free and forced convective heat transfer, various correlations for heat transfer in flow over flat plates and through pipes; thermal boundary layer; effect of turbulence; radiative heat transfer, black and grey surfaces, shape factors, network analysis; heat exchanger performance, LMTD and NTU methods.

**Fluid Mechanics:**

Fluid properties; fluid statics, manometry, buoyancy; control-volume analysis of mass, momentum and energy; fluid acceleration; differential equations of continuity and momentum; Bernoulli's equation; viscous flow of incompressible fluids; boundary layer; elementary turbulent flow; flow through pipes, head losses in pipes, bends etc.

**Vibrations:**

Free and forced vibration of single degree of freedom systems; effect of damping; harmonically excited and transient vibrations; introduction to multi-degree of freedom systems; vibration isolation; resonance, critical speeds of shafts.

**Design:**

Design for static and dynamic loading; failure theories; fatigue strength and the S-N diagram; principles of the design of machine elements such as bolted, riveted and welded joints, shafts, spur gears, rolling and sliding contact bearings, keys, couplings, brakes and clutches; Selection of Materials.

**Fluid Machines:**

Pelton, Francis, propeller and Kaplan turbines; performance characteristics and governing of hydraulic turbines; introduction to Deriaz and Bulb turbines; selection of turbines; Centrifugal & axial pumps and fans, reciprocating pumps.

**Joining:**

Chemistry of welding, design of welding joints, pre- and post-heat treatment of welded joints; brazing and soldering; adhesive bonding.

**Machining and Machine Tool Operations:**

Mechanics of metal cutting and chip formation, single and multi-point cutting tools, tool geometry and materials, tool life and wear; principles of non-conventional machining processes; principles of work clamping, principles of design of jigs and fixtures.

**Metrology and Inspection:**

Limits, fits and tolerances; linear and angular measurements; comparators; gauge design; interferometry; form and finish measurement; alignment and testing methods; tolerance analysis in manufacturing and assembly.

**Computer Integrated Manufacturing:**

Basic concepts of CAD/CAM and their integration tools. 16. Production Planning and Control: Forecasting models, aggregate production planning, scheduling, materials requirement planning.

**Inventory Control:**

Deterministic and probabilistic models; safety stock inventory control systems, economic order quantity.

**Operations Research:**

Linear programming, simplex and duplex method, transportation, assignment, network flow models, simple queuing models, PERT and CPM.

**Product Design and Development:**

Principles of good product design, tolerance design; quality and cost considerations; product life cycle; standardization, simplification, diversification, value engineering and analysis, concurrent engineering.

**Industrial Safety:**

Introduction, types of accidents, causes and common sources of accidents, methods of safety, first aid.

**Engineering Economy and Costing:**

Elementary cost accounting and methods of depreciation; break-even analysis, techniques for evaluation of capital investments, financial statements.

**Management Information System:**

Value of information; information storage and retrieval system - database and data structures; knowledge based systems.

### Discipline: Civil Engineering

**Mechanics:**

Bending moment and shear force in statically determinate beams. Simple stress and strain relationship: Stress and strain in two dimensions, principal stresses, stress transformation, Mohr's circle. Simple bending theory, flexural and shear stresses, unsymmetrical bending, shear centre. Thin walled pressure vessels, uniform torsion, buckling of column, combined and direct bending stresses.

**Structural Analysis:**

Analysis of statically determinate trusses, arches, beams, cables and frames, displacements in statically determinate structures and analysis of statically indeterminate structures by force/ energy methods, analysis by displacement methods (slope deflection and moment distribution methods), influence lines for determinate and indeterminate structures. Basic concepts of matrix methods of structural analysis.

**Concrete Structures:**

Concrete Technology- properties of concrete, basics of mix design. Concrete design- basic working stress and limit state design concepts, analysis of ultimate load capacity and design of members subjected to flexure, shear, compression and torsion by limit state methods. Basic elements of prestressed concrete, analysis of beam sections at transfer and service loads.

**Steel Structures:**

Analysis and design of tension and compression members, beams and beam- columns, column bases. Connections- simple and eccentric, beam-column connections, plate girders and trusses. Plastic analysis of beams and frames.

**Soil Mechanics:**

Origin of soils, soil classification, three - phase system, fundamental definitions, relationship and interrelationships, permeability and seepage, effective stress principle, consolidation, compaction, shear strength.

**Foundation Engineering:**

Sub-surface investigations- scope, drilling bore holes, sampling, penetration tests, plate load test. Earth pressure theories, effect of water table, layered soils. Stability of slopes- infinite slopes, finite slopes. Foundation types- foundation design requirements. Shallow foundations- bearing capacity, effect of shape, water table and other factors, stress distribution, settlement analysis in sands and clays. Deep foundations -pile types, dynamic and static formulae, load capacity of piles in sands and clays, negative skin friction.

**Fluid Mechanics and Hydraulics:**

Properties of fluids, principle of conservation of mass, momentum, energy and corresponding equations, potential flow, applications of momentum and Bernoulli's equation, laminar and turbulent flow, flow in pipes, pipe networks. Concept of boundary layer and its growth. Uniform flow, critical flow and gradually varied flow in channels, specific energy concept, hydraulic jump. Forces on immersed bodies, flow measurements in channels, tanks and pipes. Dimensional analysis and hydraulic modeling. Kinematics of flow, velocity triangles and specific speed of pumps and turbines.

**Hydrology:**

Hydrologic cycle, rainfall, evaporation, infiltration, stage discharge relationships, unit hydrographs, flood estimation, reservoir capacity, reservoir and channel routing. Well hydraulics.

**Irrigation:**

Duty, delta, estimation of evapo-transpiration. Crop water requirements. Design of: lined and unlined canals, waterways, head works, gravity dams and spillways. Design of weirs on permeable foundation. Types of irrigation system, irrigation methods. Water logging and drainage, sodic soils.

**Water requirements:**

Quality standards, basic unit processes and operations for water treatment. Drinking water standards, water requirements, basic unit operations and unit processes for surface water treatment, distribution of water. Sewage and sewerage treatment, quantity and characteristics of wastewater. Primary, secondary and tertiary treatment of wastewater, sludge disposal, effluent discharge standards. Domestic wastewater treatment, quantity of characteristics of domestic wastewater, primary and secondary treatment Unit operations and unit processes of domestic wastewater, sludge disposal.

**Air Pollution:**

Types of pollutants, their sources and impacts, air pollution meteorology, air pollution control, air quality standards and limits.

**Municipal Solid Wastes:**

Characteristics, generation, collection and transportation of solid wastes, engineered systems for solid waste management (reuse/ recycle, energy recovery, treatment and disposal).

**Noise Pollution:**

Impacts of noise, permissible limits of noise pollution, measurement of noise and control of noise pollution.

**Surveying:**

Importance of surveying, principles and classifications, mapping concepts, coordinate system, map projections, measurements of distance and directions, leveling, theodolite traversing, plane table surveying, errors and adjustments, curves.

### Discipline: Control & Instrumentation

**Basics of Circuits and Measurement Systems:**

Kirchoff's laws, mesh and nodal Analysis. Circuit theorems. One-port and two-port Network Functions. Static and dynamic characteristics of Measurement Systems. Error and uncertainty analysis. Statistical analysis of data and curve fitting.

**Transducers, Mechanical Measurement and Industrial Instrumentation:**

Resistive, Capacitive, Inductive and piezoelectric transducers and their signal conditioning. Measurement of displacement, velocity and acceleration (translational and rotational), force, vibration and shock. Measurement of pressure, flow, temperature and liquid level. Measurement of pH, conductivity, humidity, hydrazine, silica, dissolved O2. Units and standards of measurement.

**Analog Electronics:**

Characteristics of diode, BJT, JFET and MOSFET. Diode circuits. Transistors at low and high frequencies, Amplifiers, single and multi-stage. Feedback amplifiers. Operational amplifiers, characteristics and circuit configurations. Instrumentation amplifier. Precision rectifier. V-to-I and I-to-V converter. Op-Amp based active filters. Oscillators and signal generators. Voltage stabiliser and regulator circuits. Inverter and converter circuits.

**Digital Electronics:**

Combinational logic circuits, minimization of Boolean functions. IC families, TTL, MOS and CMOS. Arithmetic circuits. Comparators, Schmitt trigger, timers and mono-stable multi-vibrator. Sequential circuits, flip-flops, counters, shift registers. Multiplexer, S/H circuit. Analog-to-Digital and Digital-to-Analog converters. Basics of number system. Microprocessor applications, memory and input-output interfacing. Microcontrollers.

**Signals and Systems:**

Definitions and properties of Laplace transform, continuous-time and discrete-time Fourier series, continuous-time and discrete-time Fourier Transform, DFT and FFT, z-transform. Sampling theorem. Linear Time-Invariant (LTI) Systems: definitions and properties; causality, stability, impulse response, convolution, poles and zeros, parallel and cascade structure, frequency response, group delay, phase delay. Signal transmission through LTI systems.

**Communications:**

Random signals and noise: probability, random variables, probability density function, autocorrelation, power spectral density. Analog communication systems: amplitude and angle modulation and demodulation systems, spectral analysis of these operations, superheterodyne receivers; elements of hardware, realizations of analog communication systems; signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) calculations for amplitude modulation (AM) and frequency modulation (FM) for low noise conditions. Fundamentals of information theory and channel capacity theorem. Digital communication systems: pulse code modulation (PCM), differential pulse code modulation (DPCM), digital modulation schemes: amplitude, phase and frequency shift keying schemes (ASK, PSK, FSK), matched filter receivers, bandwidth consideration and probability of error calculations for these schemes. Basics of TDMA, FDMA and CDMA and GSM. Basic Network topology and Net work hard wares. LAN / WAN configurations. UTP and OFC Links and components. Serial and parallel communication, Shielding and grounding. IEEE standards and broadband.

**Electrical and Electronic Measurements:**

Bridges and potentiometers, measurement of R,L and C. Measurements of voltage, current, power, power factor and energy. A.C & D.C current probes. Extension of instrument ranges. Q-meter and waveform analyzer. Digital voltmeter and multi-meter. Time, phase and frequency measurements. Cathode ray oscilloscope. Instrument Transformer.

**Control Systems and Process Control:**

Feedback principles. Signal flow graphs. Transient Response, steady-state-errors. Routh and Nyquist criteria. Bode plot, root loci. Time delay systems. Phase and gain margin. State space representation of systems. Mechanical, hydraulic and pneumatic system components. Synchro pair, servo and step motors. On-off, cascade, P, P-I, P-I-D, feed forward and derivative controller, Fuzzy controllers. Multi-state variable and Adaptative controls. System modeling, Digital controls, Distributed digital controls, control loops based on computers.

**Analytical, Optical and Biomedical Instrumentation:**

Mass spectrometry. UV, visible and IR spectrometry. X-ray and nuclear radiation measurements. Optical sources and detectors, LED, laser, Photo-diode, photo-resistor and their characteristics. Interferometers, applications in metrology.

### Discipline: Human Resourse

01. Human Resource Management02. Human Resource Planning

03. Recruitment & Selection

04. Human Resource Development: Strategies and Systems

05. Performance Management & Appraisal

06. Training and Development

07. Management of Compensations and Benefits

08. Rewards & Recognition

09. Organizational Structure Design and Change

10. Management Process and Organizational Behavior

11. Management of Change and Organization Effectiveness

12. Managing Interpersonal and Group Processes

13. Emotional Intelligence and Managerial Effectiveness

14. Transactional Analysis

15. Industrial Relations & Trade Unions

16. Labour Laws

17. Conflict Management

18. Collective Bargaining and Negations process

19. Grievance Management

20. Business Policy and Strategic Analysis

21. Corporate Evolution and Strategic Management

22. Cross Cultural and Global Management

23. International Business Environment

24. Business Ethics, Corporate Governance & Social Responsibility

25. Understanding Society and Social Structure

26. Managerial Economics, Financial Management and Accounting

27. Quantitative Methods & Research Methodology

28. Management Information Systems

29. Human Resource Information System

30. Total Quality Management

### Discipline: Finance

**Financial Accounting**

* Accounting Standards

* Corporate Accounts

* Indirect & Direct - Tax Management

* Auditing

* Corporate & Industrial Laws

**Cost & Management Accounting**

* Costing Techniques

* Cost Audit

* Project Planning, Financing, Analysis and Management

* Quantitative Techniques

* Operation & Project Management Control

**Financial Management**

* Management Science

* International Financial Management

* Risk Management

* Capital Market Analysis

* Financial Derivatives

* Security Analysis and Investment Management

**General**

* Managerial Economics

* Management Information Systems

* Computer Applications in Business

* Management Control System

**NTPC Part-II:**

**Executive Aptitude Test**

Executive Aptitude Test is common to all disciplines. This part will be consists of 50 objective type questions on:

01. Vocabulary

02. Verbal comprehension

03. Quantitative aptitude

04. Reasoning ability to determine data sufficiency

05. Interpretation of graphs/ charts/ tables

06. Numerical ability etc.

*********************************************************************

Hi Friends,

__I wrote the NTPC exam held on april 9th,2006(Electronics Stream)__I faced the problem of "knowing the syllabus and the pattern" of it before

the exam.I was not able to find the correct guidance in any of these grps.So

i thought I would share mine so that it would be useful for the future

aspirants of NTPC.

**First 120 question on technical and 50 questions on general aptitude.**

**1/3 negative marks for all the questions.**

2 hours exam.(No calculator allowed)

2 hours exam.(No calculator allowed)

Question paper along with the key sheet should be handed over to the

invigilator after the end of exam.

__About the Technical:__questions about diac,triac,buck effect etc.

Control systems,synchros,all basics and theoretical

computer NETWORKS:

(abt CSMA/CD,bridges,routers,Ieee standards like 802.3,etc.(abt ethernet))

VLSI

(CMOS structure, functioning,)

DIGITAL ELECTRONICS

(gates,negative logic,postive logic,nand,counters,etc.)

Sample question:write a particular number in BCD,or hex equivalent etc.)

cominational circuit design(no of gates required etc.)

electronics:

led bias,tunnel diode bias,fet,bjt,feedback amplifier

properties,optoelectronic devices,class c amplifiers,multivibrators,band gaps

in Si,Ge.,intrinsic concentration etc.

general:

abt ozone layer depletion (CFCs)

The total efficeincy of a thermal plant.

communications:

Amplitude modulation,FM Vs. AM.

Antennas :

Director,reflector in yagi uda,microwave frequency ranges,bands,

ground wave,sky wave,space wave propagation.In which media em waves travel

faster.

Microprocessor 8085,interrupt structure,architecture,memories,mapping

schemes,8255,interrupt controller(8259)(ICW1,OCW etc.)

hard disk,floppy disk access times

mangement science

abc analysis(inventory management)

signals systems:

fourier transfor,sinc functions,convolution

network theory:

resonant frequency formulae

OP AMPS:

a/d d/a converters,differentiators and integrators,instrumentation

amplifiers.

digital communications:

fdm, tdm

I almost covered 95% of the topics.This is as far as I could remember.

**synonyms**

__About aptitude:__antonyms

comprehension passages

aptitude problem solving skills(train probs,loss profit sums,ratios,etc.)

word analogies

fill in the sentences with the most suitable word type of questions.

******************************************************************************

**NTPC PAPERS**

**NTPC PREVIOUS PAPERS :**

Some Technical Questions from Previous NTPC Exam :

**Technical Paper :**

1. Given four unit-circle plots identify the one corresponding to a bandpass filter.

2. A 4 kHz signal is sampled at thrice the Nyquist rate and sent through a channel with error ≤1%. Calc the bandwidth of the channel.

3. Given a two port network in the form of a T find o/p admittance in terms of y-parameters.

4. Connect two 1Ω resistors in series, then connect two 1H inductors across one of the resistors such that the ckt looks like a 1Ω resistor in series with a Π-section of a resistor and two inductors. With the series resistance on the i/p side, calc the transfer function of this ckt

5. Inverse laplace transform of 1/s2[d/ds(e-3s/s)]

6. Lower useful input limit of a transducer is determined by…

7. Air-cored inductors are used for low frequency/high frequency/equal frequency operations.

8. Given 4 pole-zero plots identify which one corresponds to the driving point impedance of a series resonant ckt.

9. Expression for δ(n): u(n)-u(n-1)/ u(n-1)-u(n+1)/ u(n)+u(n+1)/...

10. The sequence (2,3,4,3) is circularly even/circularly odd/circularly zero/both circularly even and odd.

11. Z-transform of 3n u(n).

12. Match the following with their characteristics: LED/LCD/nixie tube/optical fibre.

13. Numerical on a photodiode: to calculate the responsivity/sensitivity when a specified no of incident photons cause a specified no of electron generation.

14. Given an op-amp ckt obtain an expression for o/p voltage.

15. No. of encirclements made about the origin of the nyquist plot of the open loop TF:1/[(s-1)(s+2)(s+3)].

16. For a radioactive sample which decays to 12.5% of its initial value in x days, the half life is given by____

17. For a repeater in a PCM cable identify the correct sequence of actions amongst threshold/equalization/etc.

18. O/P of a delta modulator when a ramp input is fed to it.

19. Steady state error with ramp i/p for a type-0 system.

20. Creeping occurs in energy meters bcoz….

21. Ultrasonic method of flow measurement cannot be used in liquids with air bubbles/has less attenuation in air compared to liquid-identify the false statement (if any) among these.

22. Major cause of losses in a fibre optic cable: dispersion/total internal refraction/presence of core and cladding/…

23. Which layer in the OSI model is concerned with printer buffering,etc: network/session/transport/…

24. Given some function F(jω) calc its inverse CTFT.

25. Relation between laplace and z-transform: s=z/ s=ln z/ s=( ln z/T) /…

26. Maxm and minm probability error among ASK,PSK,FSK,DPSK etc

27. Which of the following is a non linear modulation scheme: PAM/QAM/PCM/…

28. Match the following functions: e-t , e-t + et, sin(πt) with causal and stable system, causal and unstable system, etc.

29. Given a ckt with a 50 Ω resistor in series between two voltage sources of 10 V and 5 V magnitude calc power delivered by 5 V source.

30. Laplace transform of e-3tu(t)+e2tu(-t).

31. Which photodetector has output affected by own intrinsic noise: PN/APD/PIN/all.

32. AC signal conditioning is used for inductive and capacitive/resistive/piezoelectric transducers/all of the above.

33. When I mode is added to proportional control system stability increases/ decreases/ steady state performance deteriorates/damping increases.

34. Reset control is another name for integral/derivative/proportional/…. Control.

35. Time response of system having transfer function 625/(s2+25) will be of the form…

36. Given some transfer function calc the peak response time.

37. The nyquist sampling rate of the function [sin(at)/t]2 will be…

38. The feedback topology that results in increased i/p and o/p impedance is current series/voltage series/current shunt voltage shunt.

39. Numerical on cardiac output calculation given heart rate and volume per beat.

40. In an ECG instrumentation amplifier the differential gain is provided by 1st stage/2nd stage/mismatched resistors/output stage.

41. Repeat ques 40 above for the classic 3-op amp instrum amplifier.

42. EMG signals are of the order of mV/V/μV/…

43. Computer assisted tomography is used for…

44. Numerical on electrostatic instrument, to calculate deflection given spring constant, torque etc.

45. To prevent loading of a ckt i/p impedance of a CRO should bee high/low/inductive/capacitive.

46. Addition of a zero to a 2nd order underdamped system results in increase/decrease of rise time and increase/decrease of peak overshoot.

47. For PI ctrl we obtain improved bandwidth/improved steady state performance/ worsened steady state performance/…

48. SNR of normal AM system is comparable/3 dB lower/3 dB higher/6 dB lower over DSB-SC and SSB system.

49. Which is an effective measure of the noise related performance of an amplifier: SNR/noise ratio/thermal noise/shot noise.

50. Given baseband signal freq and carrier freq calc which of the freq given will not be present for conventional AM.

51. Distinction between FM and PM at high frequencies.

52. Which of these has the least propagation delay RTL/ECL/I2L/CMOS.

53 Switching speed of CMOS is affected/unaffected by changes in supply voltage.

54. Which of these provides a measure of heart rate P/QRS complex/T/none of these.

55. Given a ckt of a logarithmic amplifier you had to identify what ckt was it.

56. JFET can operate in depletion/enhancement/both/none of the above modes.

57. When a BJT operates in saturation the junctions are fwd biased/reverse biased/…

58. BIBO stability criterion implies that poles are within/outside/on the unit circle.

59. For faithful amplification of low amplitude signals the cut-off/active/saturation regions of a transistor is used.

60. Lissajous pattern of a signal rotates 36 times per minute. if the oscillator frequency is 560 kHz then the unknown freq is…

61. % resolution of a 10 bit ADC.

62. To obtain 10 mV resolution on 5 V range how many bit DAC is to be used..

63. Why is LCD preferred to LED.

64. How will 0.6973 be displayed on 10 V range of a 4 ½ digit multimeter.

65. Which of the following cannot be used for an automatic feedback temp ctrl system thermocouple/thermometer/thermistor/IC sensor.

66. Y(n)=X(-n+3) is an example of a linear/non linear and shift variant/invariant system.

67. The falling body method is used to determine viscosity/humidity/….

68. Which of these methods of viscosity measurement gives greatest accuracy falling body method/rotating cylinder method/both/…

69. Some question on gas chromatography

70. A device having a rotor with 3 Y-connected coils and a stator is likely to be a synchro/RVDT/control transformer/…

71. In a twisted ring counter the initial count is 1000. after the 4th clock pulse its state will be….

72. A 240 kHz signal is given into a 3 bit binary ripple counter. The lowest o/p freq obtainable is….

73. For parity bit checking which of the following gates can be used XOR/NAND/OR/XNOR.

74. Why is a BJT called so..

75. Identify the expression for gauge factor of a strain gauge among the given options.

76. In a semiconductor strain gauge as tensile strain is applied what changes take place in the n and p areas..

77. How does a radioactive level gauging system work…

78. A capacitive transducer measuring level works on the principle of change in distance between plates/change in dielectric strength/…

79. For maximum power transfer in an AC circuit the condition to be satisfied is ZL+ZS=0/XL+XS=0/none of these/….where l and s refers to load and source respectively.

80. Find the transfer function from a block diagram.

81. Synchronous ctrs are preferred to asynchronous ctrs bcoz they are faster/glitches at the output can be avoided/both/none of these.

82. The lissajous figure formed on an oscilloscope looks like the English figure of 8. if the vertical channel input is 1 kHz the horizontal input freq is….

83. IE=IC for a transistor in saturation/cutoff/active/both saturation and active regions.

84. Reproducibility of measurements is called accuracy/precision/linearity/none of these.

85. Which of these is not strictly a static characteristic accuracy/precision/tolerance/linearity.

86. The shunt coil in a Q meter has resistance of the order of mΩ/Ω/kΩ/..

87. For measuring inductance of high Q coils the bridge used is Maxwell-wien/Schering/…

88. Which of these measures inductance in terms of capacitance Maxwell and hay/Maxwell and Schering/hay and Schering/…

89. In a flip-flop with preset and clear inputs both are applied simultaneously/clear is cleared when preset is applied/preset is cleared when clear is applied/….

90. What happens when the RET instruction is encountered by 8085

91. A 1024*8 memory chip needs how many address lines…

92. What happens when the PUSH instruction is encountered by 8051.

93. In FM relation between no of sidebands w.r.t. modulating freq

94. Numerical on DPSK.

95. A multiplexer accepts input data and provides one output all the time/one output at a time/many outputs at a time/many outputs all the time.

96. Pulse modulation is essentially a process of multiplexing/….

97. Wave shape is altered by clipper/clamper/voltage doubler/amplifier.

98. 4 signals of frequencies 100,100,200 and 400 Hz are sampled at nyquist rate and sent through TDM on a channel.the bandwidth of the channel is…

99. Superposition can be applied to a ckt with initial conditions/non-linear ckt/…

100. Kelvin’s double bridge is used for the measurement of…

101. Which of these is not an active transducer thermocouple/solar cell/RTD/none of these.

102. Oscillator using positive feedback has gain of 0/∞/undefined value/…

103. Wien bridge oscillator should initially have closed loop gain >3/<3/=3/…

104. Some question on gain margin and phase shift of a system.

105. Fourier series expansion of even function has sine terms only/cosine terms only/no odd harmonics/…

106. Full wave rectifier gives clean dc o/p/dc o/p with small ripple/positive half and inverted negative half of i/p as o/p.

107. Which of these values of ζ gives damped oscillations: 0/1/1.6/0.6

108. For a transformer of ratio 1:a and excited by a source V with impedances Z1 and Z2 on the primary and secondary side value of a for maxm power transfer should be..

109. Fourier transform of cos(ω0t) is…

110. At t=0 the step response of a 1st order system is….

111. 555 can be used as a monostable/astable/freq dividing ckt/all of these.

112. In a PT when the secondary is open ckted with the primary excited what will happen.

113. If a system is marginally stable then the nature of oscillations will be…

114. Linear encoders mostly use straight binary/BCD/gray code.

115. For an accelerometer working in displacement mode the ratio of forcing freq to natural freq should be…..

It may Contain questions with options like Both a) and b) . While solving this type of Question we may get some difficulty, but practicing more we can overcome this difficulty. All the best and do more Practice.

**Aptitude Paper (70 Questions):**

Most of the Aptitude questions we get straightforward. This Paper contains questions involving profit and loss, ratio-proportion, DI from pie-charts, one RC passage and other questions from verbal. Here we have to concern the Verbal questions, which will be quite confusing, as none of the options seemed to fit the question.

******************************************************************

**NTPC PAPER 2008 :**

**(NTPC Previous Exam Paper from the Year 2008)**

*** An ice block submerged in the water, if the ice melts level of water (increase, decrease, remains same, none)**

* Simply supported beam with w point load at the middle, max. bending moment? (wl/4)

* Simply supported beam with UDL ,max.deflection (wl4/384EI)

* Cantilevel beam point load at tip,max.bending momemt comes at (end)

* When bearing life L10 represents (bearings 10%survive,bearings 10% fails, none )

* For welding high carbon steels which type of flame is used (oxidizing, carburizing, neutral, none)

* Arrange the following cutting tools in decreasing order of machining hardness…Ceramics

* When P1 and P2 are the loads acting on bearings with life L1 and L2 then L1/L2=? L1/L2={P2/P1}10/3

* Product simplification does not mean? (Product characterization)

* Which of the following process has the most scope in manufacturing? CAD/CAM, CAM, CIM, All the above.

* Concurrent engineering means? (Manufacturing, designing, both, none)

* Which manufacturing process yields higher output and increases worker productivity- (process layout, line+process, functional layout)

* 18-4-1 represents-, Tungsten-Cr-Vn

* For which material is negative allowance rovided-(Graphite,steel,bronze,cast iron)

* What is the recrystallisation temperature of tin- (60,300,1000,none)

* What is the purpose of borax in soldering-

* Top gates are provided in which type of casting-(Shallow casting,simple,complex,none)

* Simply supported beam with w point load at the middle, max. bending moment? (wl/4)

* Simply supported beam with UDL ,max.deflection (wl4/384EI)

* Cantilevel beam point load at tip,max.bending momemt comes at (end)

* When bearing life L10 represents (bearings 10%survive,bearings 10% fails, none )

* For welding high carbon steels which type of flame is used (oxidizing, carburizing, neutral, none)

* Arrange the following cutting tools in decreasing order of machining hardness…Ceramics

* When P1 and P2 are the loads acting on bearings with life L1 and L2 then L1/L2=? L1/L2={P2/P1}10/3

* Product simplification does not mean? (Product characterization)

* Which of the following process has the most scope in manufacturing? CAD/CAM, CAM, CIM, All the above.

* Concurrent engineering means? (Manufacturing, designing, both, none)

* Which manufacturing process yields higher output and increases worker productivity- (process layout, line+process, functional layout)

* 18-4-1 represents-, Tungsten-Cr-Vn

* For which material is negative allowance rovided-(Graphite,steel,bronze,cast iron)

* What is the recrystallisation temperature of tin- (60,300,1000,none)

* What is the purpose of borax in soldering-

* Top gates are provided in which type of casting-(Shallow casting,simple,complex,none)

*** Which statement is true regarding simple gear trains-(i/p and o/p shafts r fixed, each shaft has 2 gears, i/p & o/p shafts r moving)**

* What is the purpose of normalizing- (Refining of grain structure)

* As the grain size is decreased-(Hardness increases,corrosion resistance decreases,both)

* Isothermal gas is filled in a vessel at a pressure P and temperature T then considering the compressible forces as the height increases pressure ??(linearly increases linearly decreases exponentially increase )

* A bottle is filled with water and air and is tied to a string and is rotated in horizontal direction. Then in which direction will air bubble travel?

(bottom,neck,uniformly spread)

* A empty bottle(in vaccum) filled with a gas at temp T and press P when the pressure of bottle reaches P temperature of the gas is _? (T,T/K,TK)

* Bearing somerfield number _ with load on bearing? (increases,decreases,no change)

* Critical radius for a sphere is-(2k/h)

* Critical radius exist for_ (spherical,cylindrical,both,slab)

* Convectional resistance/internal resistance is called (biot number)

* Nusselt no. is? (hl/k)

* EOQ=?

* Which statement is true regarding critical path method? (i only one critical path exists for a network, more than one with same duration,)

* Shipment cost,inspection cost,storage cost comes under_ (carrying cost ,holding cost,)

* Ischronous governers sensitivity is- (zero,infinite)

* Self energized brakes are-(friction moment acts in the direction of application of force,opposite to the direction of force, does not need a force to act ,)

* The ratio of heat capacities for evaporator and condenser is_ (Zero,infinity)

* When steam and air mixture with partial pressure 0.06 and 0.07 enters a condenser what is the condenser pressure? (0.06,0.07,0.53,0.03)

* In pulverized burning of coal heat transfer from boiler to water occurs through_( predominant radiation, convection, conduction, conduction+convection)

* Rankine cycle efficiency for same parameters increases mostly with_(reheat, regeneration, super heating )

* Ericson cycle with all reversible processes assume_(carnot cycle,stirling,brayton

* Air delivery tank at outlet of reciprocating compressor is provided for_ (provide constant pressure, avoid cavitation, )

* High speed centrifugal pump has _? (vanes faces in forward direction side,backward,radial vanes)

* Thermal efficiency in decreasing order_? (Otto cycle>dual cycle>diesel cycle)

* When a 1000 K body comes in contact with atmosphere at 300K a loss of 9000 KJ heat is transferred. The net available energy transferred is_

* What is the purpose of normalizing- (Refining of grain structure)

* As the grain size is decreased-(Hardness increases,corrosion resistance decreases,both)

* Isothermal gas is filled in a vessel at a pressure P and temperature T then considering the compressible forces as the height increases pressure ??(linearly increases linearly decreases exponentially increase )

* A bottle is filled with water and air and is tied to a string and is rotated in horizontal direction. Then in which direction will air bubble travel?

(bottom,neck,uniformly spread)

* A empty bottle(in vaccum) filled with a gas at temp T and press P when the pressure of bottle reaches P temperature of the gas is _? (T,T/K,TK)

* Bearing somerfield number _ with load on bearing? (increases,decreases,no change)

* Critical radius for a sphere is-(2k/h)

* Critical radius exist for_ (spherical,cylindrical,both,slab)

* Convectional resistance/internal resistance is called (biot number)

* Nusselt no. is? (hl/k)

* EOQ=?

* Which statement is true regarding critical path method? (i only one critical path exists for a network, more than one with same duration,)

* Shipment cost,inspection cost,storage cost comes under_ (carrying cost ,holding cost,)

* Ischronous governers sensitivity is- (zero,infinite)

* Self energized brakes are-(friction moment acts in the direction of application of force,opposite to the direction of force, does not need a force to act ,)

* The ratio of heat capacities for evaporator and condenser is_ (Zero,infinity)

* When steam and air mixture with partial pressure 0.06 and 0.07 enters a condenser what is the condenser pressure? (0.06,0.07,0.53,0.03)

* In pulverized burning of coal heat transfer from boiler to water occurs through_( predominant radiation, convection, conduction, conduction+convection)

* Rankine cycle efficiency for same parameters increases mostly with_(reheat, regeneration, super heating )

* Ericson cycle with all reversible processes assume_(carnot cycle,stirling,brayton

* Air delivery tank at outlet of reciprocating compressor is provided for_ (provide constant pressure, avoid cavitation, )

* High speed centrifugal pump has _? (vanes faces in forward direction side,backward,radial vanes)

* Thermal efficiency in decreasing order_? (Otto cycle>dual cycle>diesel cycle)

* When a 1000 K body comes in contact with atmosphere at 300K a loss of 9000 KJ heat is transferred. The net available energy transferred is_

*** When entropy of a system increases_? (unavailable energy increases )**

* Rolling is a process widely used for_?

* Tool nomenclature_?

* In francis turbine movement of steam?

* For low power consumption _? (rake angle should be increased / decreased, nose angle increased/ decreased)

* Continuous chips occur in_? (High speeds,low speeds,both,none)

* Primary forces in a reciprocating engine_? (fully balanced, partially balanced, completely unbalanced, none)

* In proximate analysis pyrogallol is used for analysis of which element_? (nitrogen,oxygen)

* Sulphur content in fuel greatly affects_? (corrosion)

* Heat transfer through radiation can be increased by_? (decreasing emissivity and increases temperature of hot body)

* Rolling is a process widely used for_?

* Tool nomenclature_?

* In francis turbine movement of steam?

* For low power consumption _? (rake angle should be increased / decreased, nose angle increased/ decreased)

* Continuous chips occur in_? (High speeds,low speeds,both,none)

* Primary forces in a reciprocating engine_? (fully balanced, partially balanced, completely unbalanced, none)

* In proximate analysis pyrogallol is used for analysis of which element_? (nitrogen,oxygen)

* Sulphur content in fuel greatly affects_? (corrosion)

* Heat transfer through radiation can be increased by_? (decreasing emissivity and increases temperature of hot body)

*** Which theory of failure clearly explains the failure in case of ductile material? (Maximun shear stress theory or Guests or trescas theory)**

When a material is subjected to continuous cycles which limit is being verified? (Endurance limit)

Where is stress concentration maximum? (notches, stress reducing through cuts)

* Power transmitted through a belt drive_? P(T2-T1)

* According to Eulers theory crippling or buckling load is ____ (Wcr = Cπ2EI/l2)

* During sensible heating, specific humidity_? (remains constant)

* COP of a refrigerator is _? (greater than 1 )

* The maximum temperature in a refrigeration cycle is_? (less than/greater than/equal to critical temperature)

When a material is subjected to continuous cycles which limit is being verified? (Endurance limit)

Where is stress concentration maximum? (notches, stress reducing through cuts)

* Power transmitted through a belt drive_? P(T2-T1)

* According to Eulers theory crippling or buckling load is ____ (Wcr = Cπ2EI/l2)

* During sensible heating, specific humidity_? (remains constant)

* COP of a refrigerator is _? (greater than 1 )

* The maximum temperature in a refrigeration cycle is_? (less than/greater than/equal to critical temperature)

*** The pressure at the throat of the nozzle_? (maximum,min)**

* For a statically determinate set of forces for equilibrium_? (∑ f(X), f(Y), f(Z)=0,∑M=0)

* For a statically determinate set of forces- (there r as many equations as the no. of unknowns)

* For a statically determinate set of forces for equilibrium_? (∑ f(X), f(Y), f(Z)=0,∑M=0)

* For a statically determinate set of forces- (there r as many equations as the no. of unknowns)

*** 1-2-3 analysis is used for_? (1.break even analysis, ??)**

* A problem on mean time of service something like a salesman has a rating of 120. considering 10% allowance time calculate the time required to serve 120?

* A problem n determining time in a queue?

* Energy equation for a laminar flow is _? (Uniform and steady ,non uniform and unsteady)

* A problem on mean time of service something like a salesman has a rating of 120. considering 10% allowance time calculate the time required to serve 120?

* A problem n determining time in a queue?

* Energy equation for a laminar flow is _? (Uniform and steady ,non uniform and unsteady)

*** Undercuts in welding occurs due to_? (low welding current, high welding current)**

* Work holding equipment in shearing?

* At the centre of a nozzle _? (Mach no<1 >=1;=1)

* Work holding equipment in shearing?

* At the centre of a nozzle _? (Mach no<1 >=1;=1)

**********************************************************************************

**NTPC PAPER : 2007 AT NEW DELHI :**

**It constitutes of 170 questions (120 Tech + 50 Aptitude)**

**Time :**2 Hrs

**For tech part the syllabus is same as of the GATE and for Aptitude Part R. S. Aggarwal is more than sufficient. As time duration is very short so time management is very important.**

**APTITUDE SECTION :**

For this section no special attention is required only rs aggarwal is enough and it also has easy level of English section.

**TECHNICAL SECTION :**

**For this section u have to b good in the basics. No hard question were asked but u should b careful about your time . It has also some part of very basic general knowledge. The questions were from following topics**10-12 Questions about microprocessor(8085)

3 Questions about RS232 standard

7-10 Questions of GK

4-6 Questions on opamp

10-15 Questions on Digital Communications

2-5 Questions on microwaves

15-20 Questions on Analog Devices

20-23 Questions on Digital Electronics (flip flops,gates,mux,no system etc)

1 Questions on ISO OSI Model

5-8 Questions on Control System

10-12 Questions on Signals and their Processing

**AND SOME QUESTIONS ON PASSAGES & LIKE**

1. Passage 2. Word meaning based (antonym and synonyms) fetter, fester, lucid, anomaly, elucidate etc

3. Word analogy based

4. What is a tunnel diode

5. What is a Zener diode

6. Effect of + and – feedback on stability

7. Composition of gobar gas

8. Function of differential in the vehicle

9. Function of stack register

10. Fun of instruction pointer

11. Fun of rst6.5,7.5

12. Wht is an interrupt

13. Output vtg calc on op amp

14. How a pulse train can b generated using registers

15. Conversion of oct to hex,hex to binary

16. Fun of quantizer in pcm

17. Why fm is less prone to noise

18. Fun of limiter in detection of FM

19. What is envelop detector 20. Phase shift of 1/s^2

21. Signal limited to 1000 hz sampled at nyquist rate. quantizer has 128 level .calculate the bit rate of the system.

22. 1.5 V battery supply same power to R1 and R2 separately(R1>R2).calc the internal resistance of battery

23. A wire is cut in two halves. one half is again stretched to th twice of length .calc the resistance.

*************************************************************************

we need exam date for NTPC exams

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