Top 10 Proven Tips to Increase Blog Traffic

Ever since I started blogging on my first blog Internet Business Blog (it’s a history now) back in March 2006, I never ever saw blogs as a marketing aid. Blogging for me was just a tool to get my pages indexed fast on Google and increase my rankings. Now, after almost two years in blogging I understood that, blog can prove to be very helpful in building a brand as well as in SEO. I gradually learned how to blog and continue to learn and apply whatever I read from people online.
Here I’m sharing with you my Top 10 Tips that helped me to increase traffic to my blog. This has helped me and would surely help you too, if you continuously do it.
1. Comment of other blogs : It has been proved that commenting on other’s blog could increase traffic to your blog. Leave good comments blend it with humor, people love humor. When you find some controversial post simply put your comments in a memorable form, like you’re a grown up, controversies are the most effective way to become famous with least amount of effort but be sure not to fire people against yourself.
Traffic that is unstoppable2. Submit your articles to Social Media Sites : Social media sites are the best places where you could submit your articles and get an instant boost of traffic to your blog. If people like it they will surely link to it, hence increasing even more traffic. While top Social media sites are the best ones, you must also consider to submit your articles to niche specific social media sites. This would give you considerably good amount of recognition for your work.
3. Comment on online communities : Join and take part in the online forums and communities. Don’t forget to add a signature with your blog URL. Your comments on these communities and forums would reward you in becoming a respected part of the community as well as get you work.
4. Bookmarking Articles : Ask your visitors to bookmark your articles. Sites like StumbleUpon, del.icio.us, Google Bookmarks and del.irio.us could provide you with loads of traffic.
5. Interact with blog commenter : Make friendly relations with your blog commenter. Make them feel at home and they will make you feel at home. It’s that simple. Always try to help your commenter with some useful resource, if that is not possible lead them to a place which would solve their problems, don’t worry about they leaving your site, if they like your help they will return.
Traffic signs to stop traffic6. Write with a Consistency : Write at least 3-5 resourceful articles a week. Doing this will let your visitors understand that you are a dedicated blogger, who cares to help. If you’re not consistent enough to write then why would your readers would be consistent to visit your blog.
7. Submit your blog on Blog Directories : Submit your blogs to Technorati, Techmeme, Blogcatalog and other blog directories. Blog directories are also a place where you could submit your blogs and get traffic, initially when your blog is fairly new.
8. Link to other’s Article : Linking in and out helps a lot. Firstly, it helps you in providing proof about your thoughts as well as helps you get people link to you for providing a resourceful article.
9. RSS Feeds : Always syndicate RSS through feedburner, why? Because they are the best. Syndicating feeds also results in increasing traffic, as the people who are in list of your feed would definitely come back.
Traffic night scene10. Be Patient : This last tip is the most important one, this tells you to be patient. Whatever you do, be it building a big house or making a million dollars, everything takes time, so does our online venture. Consider this, if you have stepped in to Internet Marketing, then you didn’t get involved by chance. It’s that even your destiny wants you to get in it. If you’re patient enough to cross the initial period of failure then your future would be full of colors of success.
[tags]Increase Blog Traffic[/tags]

Effective Blog Commenting to Increase Page RankIt’s amazing how many people do not know the principles of blog commenting. The concept of dofollow may be a fairly new concept – especially to those outside the SEO community – but if you don’t pay attention to this very important attribute, your blog commenting strategy will be for naught. It depends somewhat if you’re after traffic or better page rank, but my guess is that a lot of people are commenting for the page rank exposure, rather than the traffic (which can be slight). What other explanation can there be for the litany of people posting comments with stellar anchor text on a PR 0 blog that has nofollow for comment links? Obviously, these aspiring marketers have no idea that their links count for nothing. So every blog commenter should devise a good strategy for commenting on blogs in order to get the most page rank value. Here are the main commenting tips: 1. Write a useful comment. Take as much time thinking about writing a comment as you’d think about writing a paragraph on your blog. A comment needs to be tailored to the post. Yes, people are desperate for comments, but vague comments get thrown out – like “Great post. I like your style.” (just wait for some smart a*s to write that comment on this post.) 2. Find a list of blogs in your niche. It’s recommended to go to a dofollow blog directory and find dofollowers in your niche. Narrow down those dofollow blogs by pinpointing the blogs with the highest page rank (in the Google toolbar, SEOQuake plugin, or other method). 3. Seek out blog posts that already have a good number of backlinks. Just because the blog’s homepage has a decent page rank doesn’t mean that every blog post will. There are cases where an internal blog post can have better rank than the homepage if that internal page gets a lot of links. Note: if it’s a new post, page rank won’t show up in a toolbar, but trackbacks will show up in the comment section. Also, the number of comments signifies its overall popularity. 4. Use Google reader or other RSS reader. This is a WAY better way to organize links than through standard browser bookmarks. Can’t recommend this enough. How many time have you gone to a browser bookmark only to find that the same frontpage post is still sitting there? Using a reader will organize posts based on their freshness. It’s easier to hop around between blog to blog to find places to comment. Really, commenting off a reader should be one of your daily marketing strategies. Whenever you find a blog with a good home page rank and dofollow comments (this is usually advertised), grab its RSS feed. 5. Subscribe to a thread when you comment. Someone might respond to you and then you can add another link and add to the discussion. 6. Look for sites that activate Commentluv, as this will add a link to an internal page. If you add Commentluv to your own site, you can choose which page to list. Otherwise, it will list your most recent post – which means after you post you should head over to your Commentluv site list and make another comment. 7. Find Top Commenter sites. Another plugin will show a blog’s top commenters (sort of irritatingly misspelled as “Top Commentators”). Often, it only takes 2 comments to make it to the list. Even sites that have nofollow enabled in comments will have dofollow for the top commenter list, so you shouldn’t always stay away from nofollow sites. 8. Make five comments a day, at least. This means you have to have a pretty big RSS feed list, because you can’t make five comments a day on the same two blogs. Over time, these comments will really build up. Added bonus: many of these comments will show up in your Technorati profile, improving your Technorati rank.

5 More Ways to Increase Blog Rankings and Traffic

One of the major benefits of blogging is the ability for you to go back and look at what you were thinking and writing at a certain point of time. Sometimes I forget about posts that I write and after checking my keyword referrals I see some really old posts that someone found on a search engine and came to my blog.
It’s nice to be reminded of your own thoughts by somebody else. One of my recent posts about increasing blog rankings has gotten quite some attention and I regularly receive lots of daily hits from search engines to that post. There I outlined 5 basic ways that you can help increase your blog and website rankings. After reading it over again and again, I now give you 5 more ways on increasing blog and traffic rankings.
  1. Categorizing – Chances are that you already have categories on your blog, which is good. Now, I actually saw this on a video and want to reiterate it in writing. So double categorizing your posts is probably not the best idea. Pick one category that is most suited and just stick it in there.
  2. Trackbacks – When you read someone else’s blog and like the content don’t feel shy to link their post as that will leave a trackback on their site. If it’s a popular blog { /cough like mine cough/ } then chances are that the blog owner and the visitors of that blog will follow you through as well. Who knows maybe sometime in the future the blog owner and/or his readers might like something on your blog and link to you. The wheels on the bus go round and round, round and round…
  3. Write Good Titles – When you write a post title make sure that it makes sense to you, your readers and the search engines. Search engines are intelligent and they like to match a search query depending very heavily on your title. With millions of searches being performed daily there is plenty of opportunity that someone will type in a phrase that will relate to your blog entry.
  4. Posting Frequency – If you post one post a day then make sure you write one post a day, everyday. Don’t leave one or two day’s out because it’s the weekend. The best way to make sure you have enough content is to write in advance and either save your posts as notes and when the time comes to just hit the publish button. You can also timestamp your posts to be published on a future date and time, in case you are going away for a few days or taking a break. Your readers like new content. If you have nothing new to write then link back to some posts from your favorite blogs or link back to your own archives and pop in an extra sentence or two.
  5. Subscriptions via email – I am going to implement this very soon into my blog. Email is still number 1 when it comes to getting a readers attention. Plus people are more comfortable with emails than with RSS. You can compare them with differences in the millions. Plus you have more chances that the reader will click through to your site and leave a comment when they read your posts in their inbox rather than a RSS feed reader, where they will most likely just scroll by your content as they try to read as many RSS feeds as they can. The attention span of a RSS feed reader is less than an email subscriber’s. The technology is still so new that many people don’t know how to use it, as only now has Internet Explorer added RSS feed compatibility with IE7 and many people still use IE 5.5/6.0 – so you can imagine.
So there you have it, hope these tips help you. If you have any you would like to share then please leave a comment.
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5 ways to increase your blog rankings

Everybody, me included, wants to increase their blog ranking from RSS readers, search engine results, traffic rank, page rank etc…
So just how do you do it? Some of you may know this already some of you may not. I will share with you 5 ways that have helped me increase my blog ranking a little bit more than it used to be.
1. RSS – While customizing your blog template have your RSS subscriber buttons right at the very top. If you want sign up with a RSS tracker like feedburner, feedblitz or feedzilla to track how many readers you have and you can even show them on your blog which encourages other people to sign up.
2. Commenting – Comment on other blogs that you visit in your area of interest. Don’t just go spamming yourself across every blog out there. I’ve deleted comments on my blog that people leave just for a link to their site in the hope of getting a click. Write comments that the blog owners will themselves like and appreciate, when others read it they might click through to your blog and even become an RSS subscriber or like something you wrote and link back to you (+ for linkbacks and eventually SEO and PR)
3. Write about people/things – If there are any new web services or apps/blogs/sites that you have reviewed let the owner of the website know so they can include it in their press section of their website with a link back to you. Most new websites have this feature and it’s a great way to get free linkbacks and if it’s a popular service you might even get quite a few hits from it. (if they have a rel=”nofollow” policy don’t bother, but write anyway people like to read)
4. Page Rank – If you’re setting up a new blog then there are high chances that your first pagerank will come within 2 – 3 months and it will most probably end up being from 1 – 3. There are very few that get a 4 – 5 in their first shot itself.
But now you can tag, bookmark, digg, socialize, contribute to wikis, spread your blog widgets etc…etc… about your blog among the literally hundreds of social community sites out there to get more linkbacks to your site and potential new visitors. Forums and wikis allow you to leave a link behind, although most of them are applying a rel=”nofollow” attribute – wikipedia being the most popular to do that recently.
5. Traffic Ranking – If you are looking to attract advertisers to your blog then they will no doubt look into Alexa, Comscore and now even Compete traffic rankings. Sadly most of them only track either U.S based traffic or statistics gathered through toolbars. Which is really quite stupid as I’ve lived on three continents and still bought online no matter where I was, most web stores have international shipping you know. Plus Firefox which has a 31% share of the browser market as of writing doesn’t have any toolbar that gathers web surfing information for 3rd party services like Alexa (and I don’t want it either!).
You will notice the top sites are Yahoo and Google which offer CPC advertising, among other CPC advertising services. So set a marketing budget for yourself every month say like $20 – $40 if you plan on making a few hundred, and more if you want to make a few thousand then advertise yourself via CPC programs.
You will see a lot of very popular blogs that also use CPC advertising even though they don’t need it, why? To get more traffic and also potentially more advertisers.
So how does this affect your traffic ranking. Well if people like Yahoo and Google are at the top of the charts and they send traffic to you from their search results you also get a part of the statistics that keep them at the top of the charts. You gotta lose something to gain something.
Currently I spend around $20 – $40 to increase my exposure in the traffic rankings while making a few hundred per month, hopefully I’ll be spending more to make a thousand (to start with) per month.


NTPC exam - syllabus ---- sample questions

Please read the indicative syllabus for NTPC Exams for various disciplines. National Thermal Power Corporation conducts various recruitment exams and this syllabus will help you base your studies on selective topics.
This syllabus will let you know about the topics to be covered for Engineering, Management and Finance related jobs at NTPC. If you go through previous papers for NTPC you will find that the questions broadly revolve around the prescribed syllabus. Its better that you stick to these when you start preparing and then focus on other material for extra details.
We wish you luck for your exams.


Electric Circuits and Fields:
Network graph, KCL, KVL, node and mesh analysis, transient response of dc and ac networks; sinusoidal steady-state analysis, resonance, basic filter concepts; ideal current and voltage sources, Thevenin's, Norton's and Superposition and Maximum Power Transfer theorems, two-port networks, three phase circuits; Gauss Theorem, electric field and potential due to point, line, plane and spherical charge distributions; Ampere's and Biot-Savart's laws; inductance; dielectrics; capacitance.
Signals and Systems:
Representation of continuous and discrete-time signals; shifting and scaling operations; linear, time-invariant and causal systems; Fourier series representation of continuous periodic signals; sampling theorem; Fourier, Laplace and Z transforms.
Electrical Machines:
Single phase transformer - equivalent circuit, phasor diagram, tests, regulation and efficiency; three phase transformers - connections, parallel operation; auto-transformer; energy conversion principles; DC machines - types, windings, generator characteristics, armature reaction and commutation, starting and speed control of motors; three phase induction motors - principles, types, performance characteristics, starting and speed control; single phase induction motors; synchronous machines - performance, regulation and parallel operation of generators, motor starting, characteristics and applications; servo and stepper motors.
Power Systems:
Basic power generation concepts; transmission line models and performance; cable performance, insulation; corona and radio interference; distribution systems; per-unit quantities; bus impedance and admittance matrices; load flow; voltage control; power factor correction; economic operation; symmetrical components; fault analysis; principles of over-current, differential and distance protection; solid state relays and digital protection; circuit breakers; system stability concepts, swing curves and equal area criterion; HVDC transmission and FACTS concepts. Numeric Relays.
Control Systems:
Principles of feedback; transfer function; block diagrams; steady-state errors; Routh and Niquist techniques; Bode plots; root loci; lag, lead and lead-lag compensation; state space model; state transition matrix, controllability and observability.
Electrical and Electronic Measurements:
Bridges and potentiometers; PMMC, moving iron, dynamometer and induction type instruments; measurement of voltage, current, power, energy and power factor; instrument transformers; digital voltmeters and multimeters; phase, time and frequency measurement; Q-meters; oscilloscopes; error analysis.
Analog and Digital Electronics:
Characteristics of diodes, BJT, FET; amplifiers - biasing, equivalent circuit and frequency response; oscillators and feedback amplifiers; operational amplifiers - characteristics and applications; simple active filters; VCOs and timers; combinational and sequential logic circuits; multiplexer; Schmitt trigger; multi-vibrators; sample and hold circuits; A/D and D/A converters; 8-bit / 16-bit microprocessor basics, architecture, programming and interfacing.
Power Electronics and Drives:
Semiconductor power diodes, transistors, thyristors, triacs, GTOs, MOSFETs and IGBTs - static characteristics and principles of operation; triggering circuits; phase control rectifiers; bridge converters - fully controlled and half controlled; principles of choppers and inverters; basis concepts of adjustable speed dc and ac drives. Variable speed control of AC machines.

Discipline: Mechanical Engineering

Engineering Mechanics:
Free body diagrams and equilibrium; trusses and frames; virtual work; kinematics and dynamics of particles and of rigid bodies in plane motion, including impulse and momentum (linear and angular) and energy formulations; impact.
Engineering Materials:
Structure and properties of engineering materials and their applications, heat treatment, stress-strain diagrams for engineering materials.
Strength of Materials:
Stress and strain, stress-strain relationship and elastic constants, Mohr's circle for plane stress and plane strain, thin cylinders, thick-walled vessels; shear force and bending moment diagrams; bending and shear stresses; deflection of beams; torsion of circular members; columns and struts; strain energy and impact loading; thermal stresses; Rotating Rims & Discs; Bending of Curved Bars.
Theory of Machines:
Displacement, velocity and acceleration analysis of plane mechanisms, kinematic synthesis of mechanisms; dynamic analysis of slider-crank mechanism; gear trains; flywheels; static and dynamic force analysis; balancing of rotating components; governors.
Thermodynamic system and processes; Zeroth, First and Second laws of thermodynamics;; Carnot cycle. irreversibility and availability; behaviour of pure substances, ideal and real gases; calculation of work and heat in ideal and real processes; Rankine and Brayton cycles with modifications, analysis of thermodynamic cycles related to energy conversion; vapour refrigeration cycle, heat pumps, gas refrigeration, reverse Brayton cycle; moist air: psychrometric chart, basic psychrometric processes.
Energy Conversion:
Fuels and combustion; high pressure steam boilers; flow through nozzles; Gas turbines with intercooling, reheat and regenerators, Steam turbines, velocity diagram, power output and efficiency, maximum blade efficiency of single stage impulse turbine, blade friction, compounding of impulse turbine; reaction turbine, degree of reaction, velocity diagram, power output, efficiency; losses in steam turbines, stage efficiency, overall efficiency and reheat factor; governing of steam turbines; steam condensers, condenser vacuum, sources of air leakage & its disadvantages.
Modes of heat transfer; one dimensional heat conduction, resistance concept, electrical analogy, unsteady heat conduction, fins; dimensionless parameters in free and forced convective heat transfer, various correlations for heat transfer in flow over flat plates and through pipes; thermal boundary layer; effect of turbulence; radiative heat transfer, black and grey surfaces, shape factors, network analysis; heat exchanger performance, LMTD and NTU methods.
Fluid Mechanics:
Fluid properties; fluid statics, manometry, buoyancy; control-volume analysis of mass, momentum and energy; fluid acceleration; differential equations of continuity and momentum; Bernoulli's equation; viscous flow of incompressible fluids; boundary layer; elementary turbulent flow; flow through pipes, head losses in pipes, bends etc.
Free and forced vibration of single degree of freedom systems; effect of damping; harmonically excited and transient vibrations; introduction to multi-degree of freedom systems; vibration isolation; resonance, critical speeds of shafts.
Design for static and dynamic loading; failure theories; fatigue strength and the S-N diagram; principles of the design of machine elements such as bolted, riveted and welded joints, shafts, spur gears, rolling and sliding contact bearings, keys, couplings, brakes and clutches; Selection of Materials.
Fluid Machines:
Pelton, Francis, propeller and Kaplan turbines; performance characteristics and governing of hydraulic turbines; introduction to Deriaz and Bulb turbines; selection of turbines; Centrifugal & axial pumps and fans, reciprocating pumps.
Chemistry of welding, design of welding joints, pre- and post-heat treatment of welded joints; brazing and soldering; adhesive bonding.
Machining and Machine Tool Operations:
Mechanics of metal cutting and chip formation, single and multi-point cutting tools, tool geometry and materials, tool life and wear; principles of non-conventional machining processes; principles of work clamping, principles of design of jigs and fixtures.
Metrology and Inspection:
Limits, fits and tolerances; linear and angular measurements; comparators; gauge design; interferometry; form and finish measurement; alignment and testing methods; tolerance analysis in manufacturing and assembly.
Computer Integrated Manufacturing:
Basic concepts of CAD/CAM and their integration tools. 16. Production Planning and Control: Forecasting models, aggregate production planning, scheduling, materials requirement planning.
Inventory Control:
Deterministic and probabilistic models; safety stock inventory control systems, economic order quantity.
Operations Research:
Linear programming, simplex and duplex method, transportation, assignment, network flow models, simple queuing models, PERT and CPM.
Product Design and Development:
Principles of good product design, tolerance design; quality and cost considerations; product life cycle; standardization, simplification, diversification, value engineering and analysis, concurrent engineering.
Industrial Safety:
Introduction, types of accidents, causes and common sources of accidents, methods of safety, first aid.
Engineering Economy and Costing:
Elementary cost accounting and methods of depreciation; break-even analysis, techniques for evaluation of capital investments, financial statements.
Management Information System:
Value of information; information storage and retrieval system - database and data structures; knowledge based systems.

Discipline: Civil Engineering

Bending moment and shear force in statically determinate beams. Simple stress and strain relationship: Stress and strain in two dimensions, principal stresses, stress transformation, Mohr's circle. Simple bending theory, flexural and shear stresses, unsymmetrical bending, shear centre. Thin walled pressure vessels, uniform torsion, buckling of column, combined and direct bending stresses.
Structural Analysis:
Analysis of statically determinate trusses, arches, beams, cables and frames, displacements in statically determinate structures and analysis of statically indeterminate structures by force/ energy methods, analysis by displacement methods (slope deflection and moment distribution methods), influence lines for determinate and indeterminate structures. Basic concepts of matrix methods of structural analysis.
Concrete Structures:
Concrete Technology- properties of concrete, basics of mix design. Concrete design- basic working stress and limit state design concepts, analysis of ultimate load capacity and design of members subjected to flexure, shear, compression and torsion by limit state methods. Basic elements of prestressed concrete, analysis of beam sections at transfer and service loads.
Steel Structures:
Analysis and design of tension and compression members, beams and beam- columns, column bases. Connections- simple and eccentric, beam-column connections, plate girders and trusses. Plastic analysis of beams and frames.
Soil Mechanics:
Origin of soils, soil classification, three - phase system, fundamental definitions, relationship and interrelationships, permeability and seepage, effective stress principle, consolidation, compaction, shear strength.
Foundation Engineering:
Sub-surface investigations- scope, drilling bore holes, sampling, penetration tests, plate load test. Earth pressure theories, effect of water table, layered soils. Stability of slopes- infinite slopes, finite slopes. Foundation types- foundation design requirements. Shallow foundations- bearing capacity, effect of shape, water table and other factors, stress distribution, settlement analysis in sands and clays. Deep foundations -pile types, dynamic and static formulae, load capacity of piles in sands and clays, negative skin friction.
Fluid Mechanics and Hydraulics:
Properties of fluids, principle of conservation of mass, momentum, energy and corresponding equations, potential flow, applications of momentum and Bernoulli's equation, laminar and turbulent flow, flow in pipes, pipe networks. Concept of boundary layer and its growth. Uniform flow, critical flow and gradually varied flow in channels, specific energy concept, hydraulic jump. Forces on immersed bodies, flow measurements in channels, tanks and pipes. Dimensional analysis and hydraulic modeling. Kinematics of flow, velocity triangles and specific speed of pumps and turbines.
Hydrologic cycle, rainfall, evaporation, infiltration, stage discharge relationships, unit hydrographs, flood estimation, reservoir capacity, reservoir and channel routing. Well hydraulics.
Duty, delta, estimation of evapo-transpiration. Crop water requirements. Design of: lined and unlined canals, waterways, head works, gravity dams and spillways. Design of weirs on permeable foundation. Types of irrigation system, irrigation methods. Water logging and drainage, sodic soils.
Water requirements:
Quality standards, basic unit processes and operations for water treatment. Drinking water standards, water requirements, basic unit operations and unit processes for surface water treatment, distribution of water. Sewage and sewerage treatment, quantity and characteristics of wastewater. Primary, secondary and tertiary treatment of wastewater, sludge disposal, effluent discharge standards. Domestic wastewater treatment, quantity of characteristics of domestic wastewater, primary and secondary treatment Unit operations and unit processes of domestic wastewater, sludge disposal.
Air Pollution:
Types of pollutants, their sources and impacts, air pollution meteorology, air pollution control, air quality standards and limits.
Municipal Solid Wastes:
Characteristics, generation, collection and transportation of solid wastes, engineered systems for solid waste management (reuse/ recycle, energy recovery, treatment and disposal).
Noise Pollution:
Impacts of noise, permissible limits of noise pollution, measurement of noise and control of noise pollution.
Importance of surveying, principles and classifications, mapping concepts, coordinate system, map projections, measurements of distance and directions, leveling, theodolite traversing, plane table surveying, errors and adjustments, curves.

Discipline: Control & Instrumentation

Basics of Circuits and Measurement Systems:
Kirchoff's laws, mesh and nodal Analysis. Circuit theorems. One-port and two-port Network Functions. Static and dynamic characteristics of Measurement Systems. Error and uncertainty analysis. Statistical analysis of data and curve fitting.
Transducers, Mechanical Measurement and Industrial Instrumentation:
Resistive, Capacitive, Inductive and piezoelectric transducers and their signal conditioning. Measurement of displacement, velocity and acceleration (translational and rotational), force, vibration and shock. Measurement of pressure, flow, temperature and liquid level. Measurement of pH, conductivity, humidity, hydrazine, silica, dissolved O2. Units and standards of measurement.
Analog Electronics:
Characteristics of diode, BJT, JFET and MOSFET. Diode circuits. Transistors at low and high frequencies, Amplifiers, single and multi-stage. Feedback amplifiers. Operational amplifiers, characteristics and circuit configurations. Instrumentation amplifier. Precision rectifier. V-to-I and I-to-V converter. Op-Amp based active filters. Oscillators and signal generators. Voltage stabiliser and regulator circuits. Inverter and converter circuits.
Digital Electronics:
Combinational logic circuits, minimization of Boolean functions. IC families, TTL, MOS and CMOS. Arithmetic circuits. Comparators, Schmitt trigger, timers and mono-stable multi-vibrator. Sequential circuits, flip-flops, counters, shift registers. Multiplexer, S/H circuit. Analog-to-Digital and Digital-to-Analog converters. Basics of number system. Microprocessor applications, memory and input-output interfacing. Microcontrollers.
Signals and Systems:
Definitions and properties of Laplace transform, continuous-time and discrete-time Fourier series, continuous-time and discrete-time Fourier Transform, DFT and FFT, z-transform. Sampling theorem. Linear Time-Invariant (LTI) Systems: definitions and properties; causality, stability, impulse response, convolution, poles and zeros, parallel and cascade structure, frequency response, group delay, phase delay. Signal transmission through LTI systems.
Random signals and noise: probability, random variables, probability density function, autocorrelation, power spectral density. Analog communication systems: amplitude and angle modulation and demodulation systems, spectral analysis of these operations, superheterodyne receivers; elements of hardware, realizations of analog communication systems; signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) calculations for amplitude modulation (AM) and frequency modulation (FM) for low noise conditions. Fundamentals of information theory and channel capacity theorem. Digital communication systems: pulse code modulation (PCM), differential pulse code modulation (DPCM), digital modulation schemes: amplitude, phase and frequency shift keying schemes (ASK, PSK, FSK), matched filter receivers, bandwidth consideration and probability of error calculations for these schemes. Basics of TDMA, FDMA and CDMA and GSM. Basic Network topology and Net work hard wares. LAN / WAN configurations. UTP and OFC Links and components. Serial and parallel communication, Shielding and grounding. IEEE standards and broadband.
Electrical and Electronic Measurements:
Bridges and potentiometers, measurement of R,L and C. Measurements of voltage, current, power, power factor and energy. A.C & D.C current probes. Extension of instrument ranges. Q-meter and waveform analyzer. Digital voltmeter and multi-meter. Time, phase and frequency measurements. Cathode ray oscilloscope. Instrument Transformer.
Control Systems and Process Control:
Feedback principles. Signal flow graphs. Transient Response, steady-state-errors. Routh and Nyquist criteria. Bode plot, root loci. Time delay systems. Phase and gain margin. State space representation of systems. Mechanical, hydraulic and pneumatic system components. Synchro pair, servo and step motors. On-off, cascade, P, P-I, P-I-D, feed forward and derivative controller, Fuzzy controllers. Multi-state variable and Adaptative controls. System modeling, Digital controls, Distributed digital controls, control loops based on computers.
Analytical, Optical and Biomedical Instrumentation:
Mass spectrometry. UV, visible and IR spectrometry. X-ray and nuclear radiation measurements. Optical sources and detectors, LED, laser, Photo-diode, photo-resistor and their characteristics. Interferometers, applications in metrology.

Discipline: Human Resourse

01. Human Resource Management
02. Human Resource Planning
03. Recruitment & Selection
04. Human Resource Development: Strategies and Systems
05. Performance Management & Appraisal
06. Training and Development
07. Management of Compensations and Benefits
08. Rewards & Recognition
09. Organizational Structure Design and Change
10. Management Process and Organizational Behavior
11. Management of Change and Organization Effectiveness
12. Managing Interpersonal and Group Processes
13. Emotional Intelligence and Managerial Effectiveness
14. Transactional Analysis
15. Industrial Relations & Trade Unions
16. Labour Laws
17. Conflict Management
18. Collective Bargaining and Negations process
19. Grievance Management
20. Business Policy and Strategic Analysis
21. Corporate Evolution and Strategic Management
22. Cross Cultural and Global Management
23. International Business Environment
24. Business Ethics, Corporate Governance & Social Responsibility
25. Understanding Society and Social Structure
26. Managerial Economics, Financial Management and Accounting
27. Quantitative Methods & Research Methodology
28. Management Information Systems
29. Human Resource Information System
30. Total Quality Management

Discipline: Finance

Financial Accounting
* Accounting Standards
* Corporate Accounts
* Indirect & Direct - Tax Management
* Auditing
* Corporate & Industrial Laws
Cost & Management Accounting
* Costing Techniques
* Cost Audit
* Project Planning, Financing, Analysis and Management
* Quantitative Techniques
* Operation & Project Management Control
Financial Management
* Management Science
* International Financial Management
* Risk Management
* Capital Market Analysis
* Financial Derivatives
* Security Analysis and Investment Management
* Managerial Economics
* Management Information Systems
* Computer Applications in Business
* Management Control System
Executive Aptitude Test
Executive Aptitude Test is common to all disciplines. This part will be consists of 50 objective type questions on:
01. Vocabulary
02. Verbal comprehension
03. Quantitative aptitude
04. Reasoning ability to determine data sufficiency
05. Interpretation of graphs/ charts/ tables
06. Numerical ability etc.


Hi Friends,
I wrote the NTPC exam held on april 9th,2006(Electronics Stream)
I faced the problem of "knowing the syllabus and the pattern" of it before
the exam.I was not able to find the correct guidance in any of these grps.So
i thought I would share mine so that it would be useful for the future
aspirants of NTPC.

First 120 question on technical and 50 questions on general aptitude.
1/3 negative marks for all the questions.
2 hours exam.(No calculator allowed)

Question paper along with the key sheet should be handed over to the
invigilator after the end of exam.

About the Technical:
questions about diac,triac,buck effect etc.
Control systems,synchros,all basics and theoretical
computer NETWORKS:
(abt CSMA/CD,bridges,routers,Ieee standards like 802.3,etc.(abt ethernet))
(CMOS structure, functioning,)
(gates,negative logic,postive logic,nand,counters,etc.)
Sample question:write a particular number in BCD,or hex equivalent etc.)
cominational circuit design(no of gates required etc.)
led bias,tunnel diode bias,fet,bjt,feedback amplifier
properties,optoelectronic devices,class c amplifiers,multivibrators,band gaps
in Si,Ge.,intrinsic concentration etc.
abt ozone layer depletion (CFCs)
The total efficeincy of a thermal plant.
Amplitude modulation,FM Vs. AM.
Antennas :
Director,reflector in yagi uda,microwave frequency ranges,bands,
ground wave,sky wave,space wave propagation.In which media em waves travel
Microprocessor 8085,interrupt structure,architecture,memories,mapping
schemes,8255,interrupt controller(8259)(ICW1,OCW etc.)
hard disk,floppy disk access times
mangement science
abc analysis(inventory management)
signals systems:
fourier transfor,sinc functions,convolution
network theory:
resonant frequency formulae
a/d d/a converters,differentiators and integrators,instrumentation
digital communications:
fdm, tdm
I almost covered 95% of the topics.This is as far as I could remember.

About aptitude:
comprehension passages
aptitude problem solving skills(train probs,loss profit sums,ratios,etc.)
word analogies
fill in the sentences with the most suitable word type of questions.




Some Technical Questions from Previous NTPC Exam :

Technical Paper :

1. Given four unit-circle plots identify the one corresponding to a bandpass filter.

2. A 4 kHz signal is sampled at thrice the Nyquist rate and sent through a channel with error ≤1%. Calc the bandwidth of the channel.

3. Given a two port network in the form of a T find o/p admittance in terms of y-parameters.

4. Connect two 1Ω resistors in series, then connect two 1H inductors across one of the resistors such that the ckt looks like a 1Ω resistor in series with a Π-section of a resistor and two inductors. With the series resistance on the i/p side, calc the transfer function of this ckt

5. Inverse laplace transform of 1/s2[d/ds(e-3s/s)]

6. Lower useful input limit of a transducer is determined by…

7. Air-cored inductors are used for low frequency/high frequency/equal frequency operations.

8. Given 4 pole-zero plots identify which one corresponds to the driving point impedance of a series resonant ckt.

9. Expression for δ(n): u(n)-u(n-1)/ u(n-1)-u(n+1)/ u(n)+u(n+1)/...

10. The sequence (2,3,4,3) is circularly even/circularly odd/circularly zero/both circularly even and odd.

11. Z-transform of 3n u(n).

12. Match the following with their characteristics: LED/LCD/nixie tube/optical fibre.

13. Numerical on a photodiode: to calculate the responsivity/sensitivity when a specified no of incident photons cause a specified no of electron generation.

14. Given an op-amp ckt obtain an expression for o/p voltage.

15. No. of encirclements made about the origin of the nyquist plot of the open loop TF:1/[(s-1)(s+2)(s+3)].

16. For a radioactive sample which decays to 12.5% of its initial value in x days, the half life is given by____

17. For a repeater in a PCM cable identify the correct sequence of actions amongst threshold/equalization/etc.

18. O/P of a delta modulator when a ramp input is fed to it.

19. Steady state error with ramp i/p for a type-0 system.

20. Creeping occurs in energy meters bcoz….

21. Ultrasonic method of flow measurement cannot be used in liquids with air bubbles/has less attenuation in air compared to liquid-identify the false statement (if any) among these.

22. Major cause of losses in a fibre optic cable: dispersion/total internal refraction/presence of core and cladding/…

23. Which layer in the OSI model is concerned with printer buffering,etc: network/session/transport/…

24. Given some function F(jω) calc its inverse CTFT.

25. Relation between laplace and z-transform: s=z/ s=ln z/ s=( ln z/T) /…

26. Maxm and minm probability error among ASK,PSK,FSK,DPSK etc

27. Which of the following is a non linear modulation scheme: PAM/QAM/PCM/…

28. Match the following functions: e-t , e-t + et, sin(πt) with causal and stable system, causal and unstable system, etc.

29. Given a ckt with a 50 Ω resistor in series between two voltage sources of 10 V and 5 V magnitude calc power delivered by 5 V source.

30. Laplace transform of e-3tu(t)+e2tu(-t).

31. Which photodetector has output affected by own intrinsic noise: PN/APD/PIN/all.

32. AC signal conditioning is used for inductive and capacitive/resistive/piezoelectric transducers/all of the above.

33. When I mode is added to proportional control system stability increases/ decreases/ steady state performance deteriorates/damping increases.

34. Reset control is another name for integral/derivative/proportional/…. Control.

35. Time response of system having transfer function 625/(s2+25) will be of the form…

36. Given some transfer function calc the peak response time.

37. The nyquist sampling rate of the function [sin(at)/t]2 will be…

38. The feedback topology that results in increased i/p and o/p impedance is current series/voltage series/current shunt voltage shunt.

39. Numerical on cardiac output calculation given heart rate and volume per beat.

40. In an ECG instrumentation amplifier the differential gain is provided by 1st stage/2nd stage/mismatched resistors/output stage.

41. Repeat ques 40 above for the classic 3-op amp instrum amplifier.

42. EMG signals are of the order of mV/V/μV/…

43. Computer assisted tomography is used for…

44. Numerical on electrostatic instrument, to calculate deflection given spring constant, torque etc.

45. To prevent loading of a ckt i/p impedance of a CRO should bee high/low/inductive/capacitive.

46. Addition of a zero to a 2nd order underdamped system results in increase/decrease of rise time and increase/decrease of peak overshoot.

47. For PI ctrl we obtain improved bandwidth/improved steady state performance/ worsened steady state performance/…

48. SNR of normal AM system is comparable/3 dB lower/3 dB higher/6 dB lower over DSB-SC and SSB system.

49. Which is an effective measure of the noise related performance of an amplifier: SNR/noise ratio/thermal noise/shot noise.

50. Given baseband signal freq and carrier freq calc which of the freq given will not be present for conventional AM.

51. Distinction between FM and PM at high frequencies.

52. Which of these has the least propagation delay RTL/ECL/I2L/CMOS.

53 Switching speed of CMOS is affected/unaffected by changes in supply voltage.

54. Which of these provides a measure of heart rate P/QRS complex/T/none of these.

55. Given a ckt of a logarithmic amplifier you had to identify what ckt was it.

56. JFET can operate in depletion/enhancement/both/none of the above modes.

57. When a BJT operates in saturation the junctions are fwd biased/reverse biased/…

58. BIBO stability criterion implies that poles are within/outside/on the unit circle.

59. For faithful amplification of low amplitude signals the cut-off/active/saturation regions of a transistor is used.

60. Lissajous pattern of a signal rotates 36 times per minute. if the oscillator frequency is 560 kHz then the unknown freq is…

61. % resolution of a 10 bit ADC.

62. To obtain 10 mV resolution on 5 V range how many bit DAC is to be used..

63. Why is LCD preferred to LED.

64. How will 0.6973 be displayed on 10 V range of a 4 ½ digit multimeter.

65. Which of the following cannot be used for an automatic feedback temp ctrl system thermocouple/thermometer/thermistor/IC sensor.

66. Y(n)=X(-n+3) is an example of a linear/non linear and shift variant/invariant system.

67. The falling body method is used to determine viscosity/humidity/….

68. Which of these methods of viscosity measurement gives greatest accuracy falling body method/rotating cylinder method/both/…

69. Some question on gas chromatography

70. A device having a rotor with 3 Y-connected coils and a stator is likely to be a synchro/RVDT/control transformer/…

71. In a twisted ring counter the initial count is 1000. after the 4th clock pulse its state will be….

72. A 240 kHz signal is given into a 3 bit binary ripple counter. The lowest o/p freq obtainable is….

73. For parity bit checking which of the following gates can be used XOR/NAND/OR/XNOR.

74. Why is a BJT called so..

75. Identify the expression for gauge factor of a strain gauge among the given options.

76. In a semiconductor strain gauge as tensile strain is applied what changes take place in the n and p areas..

77. How does a radioactive level gauging system work…

78. A capacitive transducer measuring level works on the principle of change in distance between plates/change in dielectric strength/…

79. For maximum power transfer in an AC circuit the condition to be satisfied is ZL+ZS=0/XL+XS=0/none of these/….where l and s refers to load and source respectively.

80. Find the transfer function from a block diagram.

81. Synchronous ctrs are preferred to asynchronous ctrs bcoz they are faster/glitches at the output can be avoided/both/none of these.

82. The lissajous figure formed on an oscilloscope looks like the English figure of 8. if the vertical channel input is 1 kHz the horizontal input freq is….

83. IE=IC for a transistor in saturation/cutoff/active/both saturation and active regions.

84. Reproducibility of measurements is called accuracy/precision/linearity/none of these.

85. Which of these is not strictly a static characteristic accuracy/precision/tolerance/linearity.

86. The shunt coil in a Q meter has resistance of the order of mΩ/Ω/kΩ/..

87. For measuring inductance of high Q coils the bridge used is Maxwell-wien/Schering/…

88. Which of these measures inductance in terms of capacitance Maxwell and hay/Maxwell and Schering/hay and Schering/…

89. In a flip-flop with preset and clear inputs both are applied simultaneously/clear is cleared when preset is applied/preset is cleared when clear is applied/….

90. What happens when the RET instruction is encountered by 8085

91. A 1024*8 memory chip needs how many address lines…

92. What happens when the PUSH instruction is encountered by 8051.

93. In FM relation between no of sidebands w.r.t. modulating freq

94. Numerical on DPSK.

95. A multiplexer accepts input data and provides one output all the time/one output at a time/many outputs at a time/many outputs all the time.

96. Pulse modulation is essentially a process of multiplexing/….

97. Wave shape is altered by clipper/clamper/voltage doubler/amplifier.

98. 4 signals of frequencies 100,100,200 and 400 Hz are sampled at nyquist rate and sent through TDM on a channel.the bandwidth of the channel is…

99. Superposition can be applied to a ckt with initial conditions/non-linear ckt/…

100. Kelvin’s double bridge is used for the measurement of…

101. Which of these is not an active transducer thermocouple/solar cell/RTD/none of these.

102. Oscillator using positive feedback has gain of 0/∞/undefined value/…

103. Wien bridge oscillator should initially have closed loop gain >3/<3/=3/…

104. Some question on gain margin and phase shift of a system.

105. Fourier series expansion of even function has sine terms only/cosine terms only/no odd harmonics/…

106. Full wave rectifier gives clean dc o/p/dc o/p with small ripple/positive half and inverted negative half of i/p as o/p.

107. Which of these values of ζ gives damped oscillations: 0/1/1.6/0.6

108. For a transformer of ratio 1:a and excited by a source V with impedances Z1 and Z2 on the primary and secondary side value of a for maxm power transfer should be..

109. Fourier transform of cos(ω0t) is…

110. At t=0 the step response of a 1st order system is….

111. 555 can be used as a monostable/astable/freq dividing ckt/all of these.

112. In a PT when the secondary is open ckted with the primary excited what will happen.

113. If a system is marginally stable then the nature of oscillations will be…

114. Linear encoders mostly use straight binary/BCD/gray code.

115. For an accelerometer working in displacement mode the ratio of forcing freq to natural freq should be…..

It may Contain questions with options like Both a) and b) . While solving this type of Question we may get some difficulty, but practicing more we can overcome this difficulty. All the best and do more Practice.

Aptitude Paper (70 Questions):

Most of the Aptitude questions we get straightforward. This Paper contains questions involving profit and loss, ratio-proportion, DI from pie-charts, one RC passage and other questions from verbal. Here we have to concern the Verbal questions, which will be quite confusing, as none of the options seemed to fit the question. 



(NTPC Previous Exam Paper from the Year 2008)

* An ice block submerged in the water, if the ice melts level of water (increase, decrease, remains same, none)

* Simply supported beam with w point load at the middle, max. bending moment? (wl/4)

* Simply supported beam with UDL ,max.deflection (wl4/384EI)

* Cantilevel beam point load at tip,max.bending momemt comes at (end)

* When bearing life L10 represents (bearings 10%survive,bearings 10% fails, none )

* For welding high carbon steels which type of flame is used (oxidizing, carburizing, neutral, none)

* Arrange the following cutting tools in decreasing order of machining hardness…Ceramics

* When P1 and P2 are the loads acting on bearings with life L1 and L2 then L1/L2=? L1/L2={P2/P1}10/3

* Product simplification does not mean? (Product characterization)

* Which of the following process has the most scope in manufacturing? CAD/CAM, CAM, CIM, All the above.

* Concurrent engineering means? (Manufacturing, designing, both, none)

* Which manufacturing process yields higher output and increases worker productivity- (process layout, line+process, functional layout)

* 18-4-1 represents-, Tungsten-Cr-Vn

* For which material is negative allowance rovided-(Graphite,steel,bronze,cast iron)

* What is the recrystallisation temperature of tin- (60,300,1000,none)

* What is the purpose of borax in soldering-

* Top gates are provided in which type of casting-(Shallow casting,simple,complex,none)

* Which statement is true regarding simple gear trains-(i/p and o/p shafts r fixed, each shaft has 2 gears, i/p & o/p shafts r moving)

* What is the purpose of normalizing- (Refining of grain structure)

* As the grain size is decreased-(Hardness increases,corrosion resistance decreases,both)

* Isothermal gas is filled in a vessel at a pressure P and temperature T then considering the compressible forces as the height increases pressure ??(linearly increases linearly decreases exponentially increase )

* A bottle is filled with water and air and is tied to a string and is rotated in horizontal direction. Then in which direction will air bubble travel?
(bottom,neck,uniformly spread)

* A empty bottle(in vaccum) filled with a gas at temp T and press P when the pressure of bottle reaches P temperature of the gas is _? (T,T/K,TK)

* Bearing somerfield number _ with load on bearing? (increases,decreases,no change)

* Critical radius for a sphere is-(2k/h)

* Critical radius exist for_ (spherical,cylindrical,both,slab)

* Convectional resistance/internal resistance is called (biot number)

* Nusselt no. is? (hl/k)

* EOQ=?

* Which statement is true regarding critical path method? (i only one critical path exists for a network, more than one with same duration,)

* Shipment cost,inspection cost,storage cost comes under_ (carrying cost ,holding cost,)

* Ischronous governers sensitivity is- (zero,infinite)

* Self energized brakes are-(friction moment acts in the direction of application of force,opposite to the direction of force, does not need a force to act ,)

* The ratio of heat capacities for evaporator and condenser is_ (Zero,infinity)

* When steam and air mixture with partial pressure 0.06 and 0.07 enters a condenser what is the condenser pressure? (0.06,0.07,0.53,0.03)

* In pulverized burning of coal heat transfer from boiler to water occurs through_( predominant radiation, convection, conduction, conduction+convection)

* Rankine cycle efficiency for same parameters increases mostly with_(reheat, regeneration, super heating )

* Ericson cycle with all reversible processes assume_(carnot cycle,stirling,brayton

* Air delivery tank at outlet of reciprocating compressor is provided for_ (provide constant pressure, avoid cavitation, )

* High speed centrifugal pump has _? (vanes faces in forward direction side,backward,radial vanes)

* Thermal efficiency in decreasing order_? (Otto cycle>dual cycle>diesel cycle)

* When a 1000 K body comes in contact with atmosphere at 300K a loss of 9000 KJ heat is transferred. The net available energy transferred is_

* When entropy of a system increases_? (unavailable energy increases )

* Rolling is a process widely used for_?

* Tool nomenclature_?

* In francis turbine movement of steam?

* For low power consumption _? (rake angle should be increased / decreased, nose angle increased/ decreased)

* Continuous chips occur in_? (High speeds,low speeds,both,none)

* Primary forces in a reciprocating engine_? (fully balanced, partially balanced, completely unbalanced, none)

* In proximate analysis pyrogallol is used for analysis of which element_? (nitrogen,oxygen)

* Sulphur content in fuel greatly affects_? (corrosion)

* Heat transfer through radiation can be increased by_? (decreasing emissivity and increases temperature of hot body)

* Which theory of failure clearly explains the failure in case of ductile material? (Maximun shear stress theory or Guests or trescas theory)

When a material is subjected to continuous cycles which limit is being verified? (Endurance limit)

Where is stress concentration maximum? (notches, stress reducing through cuts)

* Power transmitted through a belt drive_? P(T2-T1)

* According to Eulers theory crippling or buckling load is ____ (Wcr = Cπ2EI/l2)

* During sensible heating, specific humidity_? (remains constant)

* COP of a refrigerator is _? (greater than 1 )

* The maximum temperature in a refrigeration cycle is_? (less than/greater than/equal to critical temperature)

* The pressure at the throat of the nozzle_? (maximum,min)

* For a statically determinate set of forces for equilibrium_? (∑ f(X), f(Y), f(Z)=0,∑M=0)

* For a statically determinate set of forces- (there r as many equations as the no. of unknowns)

* 1-2-3 analysis is used for_? (1.break even analysis, ??)

* A problem on mean time of service something like a salesman has a rating of 120. considering 10% allowance time calculate the time required to serve 120?

* A problem n determining time in a queue?

* Energy equation for a laminar flow is _? (Uniform and steady ,non uniform and unsteady)

* Undercuts in welding occurs due to_? (low welding current, high welding current)

* Work holding equipment in shearing?

* At the centre of a nozzle _? (Mach no<1 >=1;=1)

It constitutes of 170 questions (120 Tech + 50 Aptitude)
Time : 2 Hrs

For tech part the syllabus is same as of the GATE and for Aptitude Part R. S. Aggarwal is more than sufficient. As time duration is very short so time management is very important.


For this section no special attention is required only rs aggarwal is enough and it also has easy level of English section.


For this section u have to b good in the basics. No hard question were asked but u should b careful about your time . It has also some part of very basic general knowledge. The questions were from following topics
10-12 Questions about microprocessor(8085)

3 Questions about RS232 standard

7-10 Questions of GK

4-6 Questions on opamp

10-15 Questions on Digital Communications

2-5 Questions on microwaves

15-20 Questions on Analog Devices

20-23 Questions on Digital Electronics (flip flops,gates,mux,no system etc)

1 Questions on ISO OSI Model

5-8 Questions on Control System

10-12 Questions on Signals and their Processing


1. Passage
2. Word meaning based (antonym and synonyms) fetter, fester, lucid, anomaly, elucidate etc

3. Word analogy based

4. What is a tunnel diode

5. What is a Zener diode

6. Effect of + and – feedback on stability

7. Composition of gobar gas

8. Function of differential in the vehicle

9. Function of stack register

10. Fun of instruction pointer

11. Fun of rst6.5,7.5

12. Wht is an interrupt

13. Output vtg calc on op amp

14. How a pulse train can b generated using registers

15. Conversion of oct to hex,hex to binary

16. Fun of quantizer in pcm

17. Why fm is less prone to noise

18. Fun of limiter in detection of FM

19. What is envelop detector
20. Phase shift of 1/s^2

21. Signal limited to 1000 hz sampled at nyquist rate. quantizer has 128 level .calculate the bit rate of the system.

22. 1.5 V battery supply same power to R1 and R2 separately(R1>R2).calc the internal resistance of battery

23. A wire is cut in two halves. one half is again stretched to th twice of length .calc the resistance.


reg ISRO ........

                             1)12 bit ADC operating @ 1micro sec clock....conversion time....

correct ans : Successive approx
5) pulsed radar prob ;max range inc by factor
ans : 3
6)duty cycle problem
ans : .0015
7)least Power dissapation
ans: - CMOS
ans :voltage controlled device
9) adv of dpsk over psk

my ans :dpsk bit error rate is lower than psk

but de rite ans is DPSK receiver design is simple than PSK
10)Ideal current meter
ans:zero resistance

11) RLC problem...find I/V
ans : Cs/LCs^2+ RCs+1

15) alpha,beta are roots.....then.....
ans : 2

17)greatest negative no using 2 's complement....
ans : -128

20) T-ff characteristic equation
ans-- TQ+TQ

21)percentage modulation of AM
ans--100 %

22)approx noise equivalent temp.....
ans : 11.2 ( i din ans dis...)

23)differential amplifier to achieve

25) switch closed 2@ t=0...find valie of inductor..

26)op-amp ckt with 3 resistors @ input.....
ans : -9

27) given : s^2+4s+16=0; find resonant frequency.....
ans :4

29)line is open circuited...VSWR
ans: infinity

30) unit of relative permeability

31)f(x) = [tan x^2]

33)5 bit DAC has current output......
ans: 14.5mA

34) ehernet protocol

36) 8 bit microcontroller has external RAM wid memory form 8000H to 9FFFH....
no. of bytes
ans: - -- 8191

38)total power in modulted carrier,,,,
ans: 1.18KW

39) Y21 parameter....
ANS: -1/6

40) inductance if no. of turns doubled...

41) energy stored in inductor....
ans: 1.8J

42)Value of Q at !Mhz frequency....
ans:none of these
Apr 28 (6 days ago)
43)closed loop TF has poles at
ans: -2,-2

46)divergence of MAGNETIC FLUX
ans: 0

47) straight line n circle of radius a are given........length of chord.....

52)auto correlation of sinusoid....
ans : A^2/2 COS(WT)

53)source produces 4 symbols....efficieny of code...
ans:7/8 ( i din ans dis)

54)image frequency..
and:2910 Khz

57) equvalent resistance
ans: 100 ohms

58)Voltage across last resistor is V.....Vs is
ans : 8V

59)natural freuency of UFB contrl system....
ans: 3.16 rad/sec

64)Aman with n keys wants to open a lock...he tries his keys @ random...expected no of attempts for his sucess is

66) memory system of size 16K Bytes required to be designed using memory chips wid 12 addr n 4 data lines.,,,,,,,no of such chips..
ans : 4

67) 8085 program
ans : 7

68) JK FF has Tpd = 12ns.....largest MOD ...for 10Mhz freq
ans : 256

72)RLC series impedeance
ans: Sqrt(R^2 + (XL - XC)^2)

74)Moving coil ammeter may be compensated for freuency errors by...

80).lim xlogsin(x).......
ans :0

The paper was easy and tricky tooo!!! I attempted 53 and got 12 wrong...


Test Paper :8
 Paper Type     : Technical - Electronics
 Test Date        : 26  April  2009 
 Test Location  : Chennai
 Posted By        : Geet
Hello friends... I had applied for ISRO exam conducted on April'09 at Chennai. I belong to Electronics cadre and the test duration is 90 minutes (i.e) one and a half hours...
I just made a generalised preparation about all the topics suggested for the exam. Also my preparation was entirely theoritical but alas to my surprise problems were dominating in the paper. Out of 80 questions 45 were problems.
The theoritical questions were on ADC/DAC, memory devices(PLD,FPGA etc), Microcontrollers and Microprocessors(mainly their features based qns), logic families(TTL,ECL,CMOS etc), electronic devices(BJT, MOSFET, JFET, etc), PSKs tink it is polar shift keying, flipflop(must know A-Z abt tis topic), units of quantities lik permeability and so, slightly abt protocols(data commn), opamps and applications(inverted, noninverted, differentiator, integrator refer Roy chowdry), two port parameeters, antenna, measuring devices (lik ammeter, voltmeter, CT, PT), amplifiers and most importantly VSWR( voltage wave standing ratio) along wit probs. My paper contained 4 question on tis specific topic alone(12 marks).
Regarding problems finding value of resistance and equivalent resistance in an electrical N/W, expr for voltage in transient N/W, determing what kind of N/W is given, Q factor probs, probs on modulation(AM,FM,PM),probs on ADC/DAC, probs on opamps various config(to find o/p voltage), noise factor of antenna prob,Y parameter based probs, resonant ckt probs, probs on Zener diode(or any other diodes and transistors), antenna probs(bandwidth of reflector), basic intergration probs, probabability(minor, I had jus one qn), probs on flipflop n counters, microprocessr n controller probs(lik detr no of chips, loop execution usin a program, Byte storage n RAM),, fourier transform(inverse too) convolution prob, skin depth prob, jus one prob on matrix evaluvation(easy) and limit substitution prob complex conjugate and roots of eqn prob, probs on RADAR. Now here majority of probs were from control system(finding transfer fn, various frequency plots based prob, poles n zeros, resonant freq of a char eqn.) and lot of probs in inductance(value of inductance probs, enengy stored in L).
I was not shortlisted from the written test. Preparation has to b both theoritical n problematic. Electrical students are crippled due to qns from antenna while for electronic students its electrical networks since they would not hav dealt it in all sem. Time is a constraint in tis exam. Mostly the given duration will not b sufficient for completing the entire paper so try first to answer direct qns both theory n prob and then go for time consuming ones. This instruction will indeed b given in the qn paper itself. Remember 3 marks for one correct answer and a negative marking (1 mark) for each incorrect answer.
hello friends,
i hav attended the isro(electronics) exam on 16th july 2006, the pattern was:
all ques were technical only ece students will get the advantage ** no gk question
pattern=80 ques in 90 mns ,
15 ques (more) from digital(kmap,gates ,counter,numericals based on the time priod,ur basics will take you through)
ques from transmission line & em waves so read KD PRASAD(ANTENNAS, PROPAGATION)

        computer  science engineering

1) Special software to craete a job queue is called
a) driver
b) spooler
c) interpreter
d) linkage editer
2)When a process is rolled back as a result of deadlock the difficulty arises is
a) Starvation
b) System throughput
c) low device utilization
d) cycle stealing
3)On recieving an interrupt from an I/O device the CPU
a) Halts for a predefined time.
b) Branches off the interrupt service routine after completion off the current instruction.
c) Branches off to the interrupt service routine immediately.
d) hands over the control of address bus and data bus to the interrupting service.
4) Which of the following is true of the auto increment addressing mode?
1. It is useful in creating sef relocating code.
2)If it is induced in an instruction set architecture , than an additional ALU is required for effective address calculation.
3) The amount of increment depends on the size of the data item accessed.
a) 1 only.
b)2 only
c) 3 only
d) 2 and 3 only
5) Theprimary purpose of an operating system is
a) To make the most efficient use of the computer hardware.
b) to allow people to use the computer.
c) To make the system programmers employed.
d) to make computers easy to use.
6)consider the cpu intensive processes which require 10,20,30 time units and arrive at time 0,2,6 respectively.how many context switches are needed if the operating system impements a shortest remaining time first sceduling algorithm?Do not count the context switches at the time 0 and end.
a) 1
b) 2
c) 3
d) 4
7) consider a system having n resources of the same type.These resources are shared by 3 processes A,B,C .These have peak demands of 3,4,6 respectively.For what value of n deadlock won't occour.
a) 15
b) 9
c) 10
d) 13
8) In which addressing mode the effective address of the operand is computed by adding a constant value to the content of the register?
a) absolute mode.
b) indirect mode
c) immediate mode
d) index mode
9)the process of organizing the memory into two banks to allow 16 bit and 8 bit data operation is called
a) bank switching
b) indexed mapping
c) two way memory interleaving
d) memory segmentation
10)a one dimensional array A has indices 1-75.Each element is a string and takes up three memory words. The array is stored in location 1120 decimal. The starting address of A[49] is
a) 1267
b) 1164
c) 1264
d) 1169
11) The microsystems stored in the control memory of a processor have a width of 26 bits. Each microinstruction is divided into three fields : a microoperation field of 13 bits, a next address field(X), and a MUX select field(Y). There are 8 status bits in the inputs of the MUX.How many bits are there in the X and Y fields and what is the size of the control memory in number of words?
a) 10,3,1024
b) 8,5,256
c) 5,8,2048
d) 10,3,512
12)The use of multiple register windows with overlap causes a reduction in the number of memory accesses for
1.function locals and parameters
2. register saves and restores.
3. instruction fetches.
a) 1 only
b) 2 only
c) 3 only
d) 1,2,and 3
13)Which of the following about relative addressing mode is false?
a) it enables reduced instruction size.
b) it allows indexing of array element with same instruction.
c) it enabkles easy relocation of data.
d) it enables faster address calculation than absulute addressing.
14)Substitution of values for names (whose values are constants) is done in '
a) local optimization
b) loop optimization
c) constant folding
d) strength reduction
15)A root a of eq f(x)=0 can be computed to any degree of accuracy if a good initial approximation x0 is chosen for which
a) f(x0)>0
b) f(x0)f''(x0)>0
c) f(x0)f''(x0)<0
d) f''(x0)>0
16) consider the polynomial p(x)=a0+a1x+a2x*x+a3x*x*x. The mininum number of multipliations needed to evaluate p on an input x is
a) 3
b) 4
c) 6
d) 9
17)Activities which ensure that the software that has been built , is tracable tocustomer is covered as part of
a) verification
b) validation
c) maintainnace
d) modeling
18) A testing method which is normally used as the acceptance test for a software system is
a) regression testing
b) integration testing
c) unit testing
d) system testing
19)A locked database file cab be
a) accessed by only one user
b) modified by the users with the correct password.
c) used to hide the sencitive information.
d) updated by more than one user



Test Paper :20
 Paper Type     : Candidate Experiences
 Test Date        : 28  December  2008 
 Test Location  : Satyabhama, Chennai
 Posted By        : Murari
ISRO PAPER ON 28th DECEMBER AT CHENNAI                           
Written test pattern*  80 Questions
* 1:30 Hrs
* Each question carries 4 marks and 1 mark deduction for negative marking.
* All are Multipule choise

He touched all basics. Exam is some what easy and some what tough. They asked both types of questions. Examples are
1. What is characteristic gas constant
a) Cp / Cv     b) Cp*Cv   c) Cp-Cv   d) Cp+Cv
2. If three pipes are in series having dia 450,550 and 650, and thier diameters are 200,250,300 respectively. If we replaced the three pipes with equivalent pipe have length 750 mm then what could be the diameter of the equivalent pipe.
Ans: To solve this problem caluculator is necesssary. The formula is      Leqv/D5eqv = L1/D15+ L2/D25+ L3/D35    How we can calculate with out calculater.
3. A rod is subjected to 18000 Nm torque and max permissible shear stress is 60 N/mm2. Calculate the diameter of the Rod.
Ans: Torque T= (∏*D3*fs)/16
4. 10 questions are from Pshysics Ex: A car moving with a uniform acceleration covers 30mt in 5 sec. And next in  5 seconds covers 50 mt with another uniform acceleration. What is acceleration fo the car.
5. Only few qusetions from Thermodynamics ( i think 4).
6. What is the parallel flow heat exchanger and answer are with Symbols of Temperature diagrams.
7. No Apptitude and Reasoning.
8. Some questions are from Production, Heat Transfer, FM, Metrology.
9. They didn't touch Management questions.

Mostly all qusetions are from Basics. All the best for all who are intresetd to write ISRO and other compitative exams. Be prepair well. Presently Mechanical and Civil have good opportunities.So study well.


ISRO Sample Papers
  1. The minimum number of edges in a connected cyclic graph on n vertices is
     a) n-1 b) n c) n+1 d)none of these 
  2. A full binary tree with n non leaf nodes contains
     a) n nodes b) log n nodes c)2n-1 nodes d)2n nodes 
  3. The time complexity of shell sort  
     a) O(n) b) O(log n) c) O(n 1.2 ) d)O(n2) 
  4. The time taken to insert an element after an element pointed by some pointer  
     a) O(1) b) O(log n) c) O(n) d) O(nlogn) 
  5. what is the name given to the first generation computer?  
    a) Binary language b)Machine language c)Assembly language 
  6. The root directory of a disk should be placed  
    a) at a fixed address in main memory
    b) at a fixed location on disk
    c) anywhere on disk. 
  7. A top down parser generates
    a) right most derivation
    b) left most derivation
    c) right most derivation in reverse
    d) left most derivation in reverse 
  8. what is the name of the OS that reads and reacts in terms of actual time?
     a)batch system
     b)time sharing
     c)real time 
  9. FDDI is a
     a)ring network
     b)star network
     c)mesh network 
  10. Computer memory consists of
    d)all the above 

helo friends, i appeared for ISRO written examinatiom on 22april,2007 for the post of Scientist Engineer.
paper was totally technical.Questions which i remembered are as follows:-
1) output resistance of  ideal OP AMP is:-
a)  0     b)   1    c)   infinite   d)   very high                                                                ANS:  a)    0

2)  waveguide acts as:-
a)  LPF   b)   HPF   c)   BPF   d)   BRF                                                                  ANS:  b)   HPF

3) quality factor of series RLC ckt. increases with:-
a) increase in R  b)  decrease in R  c) doesn't depends on R   d) none of these         ANS: b) decrease in R.

4) energy stored in capacitor is given by:
a) CV     b)   0.5CV   c)  CV2    d)  0.5CV2                                                          ANS: d)    

5) CMRR of an OP AMP is given as 80db and Ad is 20000.Value of Acm  will be:-
a) 4   b)     8    c)     2    d)    1                                                                                 ANS: c)   2

some basic questions were based upon digital electronics,ckt. analysis,antenna theory,zener doides.
Archana Kumawat

1) Moore model of DFF?

2) Which of the following filter has steep roll-off characteristics?
(A) Butterworth filter (B) Chebyshev filter  (C) Bessel filter (D)--
ans: B

3)The architecture of DSP processor---------
(A) Havard (B) Von neumann (C)...(D)..
ans: A
4)If the input frequency to a 6 stage ripple counter is 1000MHz then output frequency at 6th stage_______
5)Minimum number of 2 input NAND gates required to realise the fn. AB'+CD'+EF'
ans: 6
6)What will exit() fn. in C will do?
7) go to command in C will cause the program to jump to----
ans: Label
8)VSWR is given then asked to find out reflection coefficient
9)The relation between power in FM signal and modulation index--------
10)If two signals are AM modulated with modulation indices of 0.3 and 0.4 what will be the modulation index of combined signal?
ans: Calculate using 1/M=(1/m1)+(1/m2)
11)If n stage pipelining is used in a processor, then what will be the speed improvement over non pipelined processor?
(A) same (B) n (C) n! (D) 2n
12)  One circuit is given (That was a Voltage Doubler using op-amp) and asked to Identify that...
13) Which one of the following memory has fastest write time?
(A) Flash (B) EEPROM (C) EPROM (D) None of these
14) In EEPROM data is stored in____
(A) Cross coupled Latch (B) Capacitor (C) floating gate transistor (D)--
15) Which technology is faster?
(A) Bipolar (B) MOS (C) CMOS (D) ..
16)Memory access time, cache access time , hit ratio are given, Asked to find out  Average memory access time
17) If the probability of getting a job for A is 1/3 and the probability of getting a job for B is 1/4 then the probability of getting a job for A or B will be____?
18)One transfer fn As4 + Bs3 + Cs2 +D=0 (I don't remember the values of A,B,C,D ) is given, Asked to find out whether the system is____
(A) Stable (B) Unstable (C) Marginally Stable
19) For implementing D flip flop using RS flip flop, the extra component needed is____
(A) AND gate (B) OR gate (C) NOT gate (D) NOR gate
20)The output of an 8 bit DAC is 1Volt when the input is 00110010, then the full scale output of the same DAC will be____
ans: 5.1 V  (Hint: 1/50*255)
21)Fastest ADC is___
(A) SAR (B) sigma- delta (C) flash (D)...
22)The operating point of Class-B amplifier will be at_____
(A) exactly at cut-off region (B) inside saturation region (C) inside cut-off region (D) middle of active region
23)For an N bit ADC , the number of comparators needed___
(A) N (B) 2N (C) 2N -1 (D) 2N-1
24)De-emphasis circuit is used for_______
ans: Attenuating high frequency components
25)The laplace transform of e-2t  _____
Ans: 1/(s+2)
26)The magnitude of 1+cos x+j sin x____
Ans: 2 cos (x/2)
27) A circuit is given in which the capacitor (1uF)  is initially charged to 12V , At t = 0, one switch is closed so that another capacitor of capacity 1.5uF comes in parallel with the first capacitor, then in steady state what will be the voltage across them? ( Visualize the circuit , as I can not draw the circuit since the editor is not supporting it)
28)Alpha of a transistor=0.99, Ico=1uA, Ie=1 mA, Ic=?
29)If the input given to an inductor is delta(t) (ie: =1 when t=0 and ,=0 otherwise) then the current will be___
(A) infinity (B) -infinity (C) 1 (D) 0
30) For implementing Band pass filter using High pass filter (Cutt off freq=Fh) and Low pass filter (cutt off freq= Fl)_____
(A)Fh=Fl (B) Fh>Fl (C) Fh
Ans: Fh
31)In the Enhancement type MOSFET the gate to source voltage Vs drain current characteristics will be____
Ans: Drain current Increases as Vgs increases in active region
32)In a johnson counter, How many state have to be changed to increment the count from 0100 to 0111?
33)Odd parity generator is____
Ans: XNOR gate
34)A circuit using op-amp was given, the question was to calculate output offset voltage___
Ans: Vo(off)=Vin(off)*(1+Rf/R1)
35)Antialiasing filter is_____
(A) Digital filter (B) Analog filter (C) Can be Analog or digital (D) RC filter

Hello Friends, I have been called for interview in Chennai after shortlisted in written exam  .My branch is CSE.There were 8-9 members in the interview pannel.
After verification of the original certificates the TA will be given to each candidate. My turn was 9th as they were calling according to their rank in written exam.
I entered into the room when my turned, they politely told me to have seat. The chief of member asked me whats your favorite subjects.I told networking,Operating system and software engineering.While i told C they told its not a subject its a language.
One of the member started to ask question from Software Engineering. Questions were like this.......
1. Tell me any one of the life cycle model
2.Give details of the phases in the life cycle model
3.What is cost estimation,Tell me any one. I discussed about COCOMO model while he asked about this model
They asked the formula which is related to the cost estimation.
4.What is verification and validation etc..
And Many more questions they asked.........................
Final question was what is fibonacci series and its application write on the white board.
They didn't ask any question from project however from other students they have asked question from project..



these are few experiences   .........

gain  advantage  of  these experiences  and prepare  well  ......

May  the   best  be  yours..............